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Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1845, by 


in the office of the clerk of the District Court of the United Slates in and for the 
Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 

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Four kinds of type are used in the following pages to indicate the 
portions that are considered more or less elementary. The most im- 
portant rules and definitions are printed in large type, italicised. 
These are to be committed to memory the first time of going through 
the book. A few other rules and definitions are printed in type of 
the same size, but not italicised. The portions so printed are intended 
for the second perusal. They are scarcely less important than the 
previous, and it may be a matter of some doubt whether they should 
not be learned the first time of going through. The next and most 
considerable portion of the work is printed in type of a medium size. 
Last of all, in the small type, is that part of the work in which the 
doctrines advanced in the rules and definitions are somewhat more 
fully explained and illustrated. By this arrangement the author has 
been enabled to enter more at length than is usually done, upon difH- 
cult and important points, while studying the utmost possible brevity 
in regard to the portions which are intended to be committed to 

For convenience in making references, the paragraphs are all num- 
bered consecutively, from the beginning to the end of the book. At 
the bottom of each page are questions and exercises growing out of 
the text on that page. These questions and exercises are numbered 
to correspond with the numbering of the text. They are also distin- 
guished by the letters a, fe, c, d, to indicate the four kinds of type 
before mentioned. These mechanical arrangements are intended to 
give practical facilities in hearing large classes, and in assigning 

The table of irregular verbs is an exact reprint of the last edition 
of Lindley Murray, by Longman & Co., London. 




Division of the subject, p. 21 ; Nature of the letters, p. 22 ; Divi- 
sion of the letters, p. 23 ; vowels, p. 24 ; consonants, p. 25 ; 
Sounds of the letters ; 1. of the vowels, p. 26 ; 2. of the conso- 
nants, p. 26, 27 ; Spelling, p. 28 ; rules for do. p. 29, 30. 


Division of the subject, p. 31. 

Articles, p. 31 ; origin and character of da, p. 32, 33 ; 

Nouns, p. 33; definition and character of do., p. 34; classification 
of, p. 35 ; attributes of, p. 36 ; Gender, p. 36 ; modes of distin- 
guishing gender, p. 37, 38 ; remarks upon gender, p. 39 ; Num- 
ber, p. 40; modes of forming plural, p. 41, 42; remarks upon 
number, p. 43, 44 ; Person, p. 44 ; Case, p. 45 ; definition of, 
p. 45 ; forms of, p. 47 ; declension of nouns, p. 47 ; remarks 
upon the possessive, p. 48. 

Adjectives, p. 48 ; character of, p. 49 ; Numeral, p. 49 ; degrees of 
comparison, p. 50; irregular comparison, p. 51. 

Pronouns, p. 52 ; true nature of, p. 52 ; division o^ p. 53 ; Personal, 
p. 54 ; remarks upon, p. 55 ; Relative, p. 56 ; remarks upon, p. 
57 ; interrogatives and responsives, p. 58; Adjective, p. 59, 60, 

Verbs, p. 61 ; true character of, p. 61 ; classification, p. 61 ; Tran- 
sitive and Intransitive, p. 62 ; Regular and Irregular, p. 63 ; 



list of irregular verbs, p. 63 — 68 ; Impersonal and Defective, p. 
69 ; Auxiliary, p. 69 ; conjugation of, p. 70 ; nature of, p. 71 ; 
Voice, p. 72 ; Mood, p. 73 ; definition of the moods, p. 74 ; Par- 
ticiples, p. 75, 76 ; Tense, p. 76 ; theory of the tenses, p. 77, 78 ; 
definitions of the tenses, p. 79 ; progression and emphatic forms 
of the tenses, p. 79 ; tenses of the subjunctive and potential 
moods, p. 80 ; Conjugation, p. 81 ; Active Voice, p. 82 — 85 ; Pas- 
sive Voice, p. 85 — 88; remarks on the conjugation, p. 88 — 90. 

Adverss, p. 90; comparison of, p. 91 ; classification of adverbs, 
p. 91. 

Conjunctions, p. 92 ; nature of the conjunctions, p. 92 ; division 
of, p. 93. 

Prepositions, p. 94 ; classes of prepositions, p. 94 ; remarks upon, 
p. 95. 

Interjections, p. 96. 

Derivation of Words, p. 96 ; prefixes of Saxon origin, p. 97; pre- 
fixes of Latin origin, p. 98; prefixes of Greek origin, p. 99; 
affixes, p. 100. 


Division of the subject, p, 103; mode of arranging the rules, p. 104. 

Rule I, Subject of the verb, p. 106; nominative independent, p. 107; 
nominative absolute, p. 107; nominative in apposition, p. 107. 

Rule II, Agreement of the verb with its nominative, p. 109 ; infinitive 
used as nominative, p. Ill; nouns of multitude, p. Ill; the 
verb " to be" betv^^een the singular and plural, p. 112 ; tw^o nomi- 
natives connected by and, p. 113 ; two do. by or, p. 113 ; nouns 
of different persons, p. 114. 

Rule III, Government of the objective by verbs, p. 114 ; infinitive used 
as objective, p. 115 ; verbs both transitive and intransitive, p. 116; 
causatives, p. 116 ; direct and indirect objective, p. 116 ; passive 
voice, p. 117. 

Rule IV, Government of the objective case by prepositions, p. 117; 


separation of prepositions from its regimen, p. 1 18 ; for before the 
infinitive, p. 119 ; two prepositions before an objective, p. 119 ; 
ellipsis of prepositions, p. 119; worthy p. 120; appropriate pre- 
positions, p. 120, 121. 

Rule V, Government of the possessive, p. 122 ; possessives my, thy, &c. 
p. 122 ; ellipsis of the governing noun, p. 123 ; possessive of 
complex names, p. 123 ; joint possession, p. 124 ; possessives in 
apposition, p. 124 ; separation of possessive from its regimen, p. 

Rule VI, Apposition, p. 125 ; noun in apposition to a sentence, p. 126 ; 
plural of complex nouns in apposition, p. 126 ; same case after 
the verb to be, p. 127 ; case indefinite after to be, p. 127. 

Rule VII, Agreement of the Pronoun with the word for which it 
stands, p. 128 ; personal pronoun, p. 129 ; relative pronoun, p. 
129 ; that for "who" or " which," p. 130 ; antecedents of differ- 
ent persons, p. 130 ; separation of the relative from its antece- 
dent, p. 130 ; ellipsis of relative, p. 131. 

Rule VIII, Construction of the Article, p. 131 ; position of, p. 132; 
ellipsis of, p. 132 ; various uses of cf, p. 132, 133 ; do. of the, p. 133. 

Rule IX, Construction of the Adjective, p. 1 33 ; qualifying the infini- 
tive, p. 134; used indefinitely, p. 134; adjectives of number, p. 
134 ; comparatives, p. 135. 

Rule X, Construction of the Adjective Pronoun, p. 136; the posses- 
sives, p. 136 ; the distributives, p. 137. 

Rule XI, Construction of the Participle, p. 137 ; remarks ui>on, p. 
138 ; double construction of, p. 138 ; participial noun, p. 139 ; 
participles of to be, to become, &c., p. 140 ; used indefinitely, p. 
140 ; perfect participle and past tense, p. 141. 

Rule XII, Construction of the Adverb, p. 141 ; position of, p. 141 ; 
not to be used as adjectives, p. 142 ; incorrect use of where, &c , 
p. 142 ; double negatives, p. 143. 

Rule XIII, Construction of the Infinitive, p. 143 ; omission of to, p. 
144 ; for before the infinitive, p. 144 ; infinitive absolute, p. 145 ; 
infinitive as a noun, p. 145. 


Rule XIV, Construction of the Conjunction, p. ] 45 ; corresponding 
conjunction, p. 146; use of than, p. 146; as, p. 147; connect 
same moods and tenses, &c., p. 147 ; Subjunctive mood, p. 148. 

Rule XV, Construction of the Interjection, p. 150 ; interjections never 
govern the objective case, p. 150. 

Miscellaneous Exercises, p. 150 — 160. 


Division of the subject, p, 161. 

'Punctuation, p. 161 ; capitals, p. 161 ; history of points, p, 162; com- 
ma, p. 163, 164; semicolon, p. 165; colon, p. 165 ; period, p. 166; 
interrogation, p. 166; other characters, p. 167, 168. 

Orthoepy, p. 168 ; accent, in general, p. 168 ; on dissyllables, p. J 69 ; 
on trisyllables, p. 170; on polysyllables, p. 171; emphasis, its 
importance, p. 172 ; difficulty of, &c, p. 173 ; quantity, p. 174; 
pauses, p. 175 ; tone, p. 177. 

Figures, p. 177 ; figures of Orthography and Etymology, 177 ; figures 
of Syntax, p. 178; figures of Rhetoric, p. 179. 

Versification — verses, p. 182; feet, p. 182; kinds of verse, p. 183; 
Iambic verse, p. 184; Trochaic verse, p. 186; Anapaestic verse, 
p. 187 ; Dactylic verse, p. 189 ; mixed verses, p. 191. 


1. Grammar is the science of Language. 

2. Grammar is divided into four parts ; namely , 
Orthography^ Etymology. Syntax^ and Prosody, 

3. Orthography treats of Letters^ Etymology of 
Words y Syntax of Sentences, and Prosody of Versifica- 


4. Orthography treats of Letters. 

5. The Points and other characters used in writing, embracing the rules 
of Punctuation, belong properly to Orthography. But the most important 
of these rules cannot be understood by the pupil until he is familiar with 
the general principles of Grammar, particularly of Syntax. For conveni- 
ence in teaching, therefore, this part of Orthography is treated of under the 
head of Prosody, although at some expense of logical accuracy. 

6. Letters are considered in regard to their nature, divisions, 
Q,nd sounds, and the mode of forming them into words and syl- 
lables. ^ 

The forming of letters into words and syllables is also called Spelling. 

Questions and Exercises. — a. 1. What is Grammar ? 2. How is it divid- 
ed? 3. What does Orthography treat of ? Etymology? Syntax? Prosody? 

d. 5. To what part of Grammar does Punctuation ^roperZy belong? Why 
is it treated of under the head of Prosody ? 

c. 6. Under what different heads are letters considered ? What is the last 
head also called ? 





7, Letters are characters used to represent certain 
elementary sounds of the human voice. 

8. The Letters of any Language are called its Alphabet, The 
English Alphabet contains twenty-six letters^ arranged in the 
followino" order : 



Old English. 


A a 

A a 

^ a 



B b 

B b 

33 b 



C c 

C c 

« c 



D d 

D d 

m 13 



E e 

E e 

SS e 



F f 

F f 

ff t 



S s 

G g 

©f B 



H h 

H h 

m f) 



I i 

I i 

fi f 



J J 

J J 

S ) 

K k 

K k 

m. ft 



L 1 

L I 

a I 



M m 

M m 

m m 



N n 

N n 

W n 






P p 

P p 

W 9 



Q q 

Q q 

©. q 



R r 

R r 

as, r 



S s 

S s 

s » 



T t 

T t 

E t 



U u 

U u 

m u 



V V 

V V 

V b 



W w 


a® h) 



K X 

X X 

X X 



y y 

y y 

^' 2 



Z z 

z % 

Z f 



* Th soft B 

,'^;th hard J), \ ; that p; and t,. 

9. In old books i 

is often used for j', v for u, vv for w, and ii or 

ij for y. 

The form of ui may 

be easily recognised in vv, and that of y in ij. 

b. 7. What are Letters ? 

c. 8. What are the letters of any language called? How many letters are 
there in the English Alphabet ? 

d. 9. What is to be remarked of the letters w and y? 



10. Letters are divided into vowels and consonants, 

11. A Vowel makes a perfect sound of itself. A Con- 
sonant cannot be fully sounded unless in connexion with 
a vowel. 

12. When the mouth, throat, and other organs of speech are opened in 
a particular position, and the voice is allowed to flow out in a continuous 
and uniform current, without any change in the position of the organs, the 
sound so formed is called a vowel. In this manner we may prolong the 
sound of a indefinitely, or until out of breath. If, while the voice is thus 
issuing from the mouth, the current of sound is interrupted by a partial 
compression of the organs, the sound becomes a semi-vowel. Thus, while 
prolonging the sound of a, if we press the tongue upon the upper part of 
the mouth, but allow the voice still to proceed, the sound becomes that of 
the letter I. If this compression becomes so great as actually to close the 
organs, "the sound ceases, and in the very act of ceasing gives rise to a 
mute. Thus, in the case just mentioned, if instead of pressing the tongue 
upon the roof of the mouth, we press it against the teeth., and entirely stop 
the passage of the voice, the actual termination of the sound is that indicated 
by the letter t This process may be reversed. The letter t may be 
formed first and the vowel follow it, as in pronouncing the syllable la. In 
this case the mute is the very beginning of sound. According to this ex- 
planation, then, a mute is the mere commencement or termination of the 
sound, on opening or closing the organs; a semi- vowel is a partial inter- 
ruption or modification of the sound, caused by changing the position of the 
organs during utterance; and a vowel is the very sound itself prolonged 
without change. 

a. 10. How are Letters divided ? 

5. 11. What is a vowel? A Consonant? 

d. 12. When the voice flows out continuously without any change in the 
organs, what is the sound called ? How long may the sound of a be pro- 
longed ? Sound the letter a until you are requested to stop. Name any 
two other4etters whose sound you can prolong in the same way. If, while 
thus sounding a vowel, the organs are partially compressed, what is the 
sound called? What letter is formed, when the tip of the tongue is pressed 
upon the roof of the mouth, and the voice continues to flow out each side 
of the tongue ? What letter is formed when the tongue is pressed upon 
the roof of the mouth, but the voice is obstructed and passes out through 
the nose? What letter is formed when the voice is obstructed and passes 
through the nose in consequence of closing the lips? If the organs of the 
voice actually close, and the sound ceases, what is the termination of the 


13. The nature of the mute or semi-vowel in each case depends upon the 
particular part of the mouth or throat used to intercept the current of sound. 
Thus, if the sound is intercepted chiefly by the teeth, the letter is called a 
dental, &c. The nature of the vowel in like manner depends upon the 
shape of the aperture while the sound is coming out. Thus, when the aper- 
ture is circular, or nearly so, we form the sound of o^ &c. 


14. The vowels are a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes w and 
y. Jill the rest are consonants. 

15. Wand y are consonants when they begin a word or syllable. 

16. A diphthong is the union of two vowels in one sound. 

17. A proper diphthong is one in which both the vowels are 
sounded ; as, ou in loud. An improper diphthong is one in which 
only one vowel is sounded ; as, oa in boat. 

18. The proper diphthongs are only two in number ; namely, 
oi, ou, , 

19. The improper diphthongs are numerous, and need not be repeated. 
Strictly speaking, they are not diphthongs, but merely single vowel sounds 
preceded or followed by other vowels that are not sounded. 

20. A triphthong is the union of three vowels in one sound ; as 
ieu in lieu. 

21. The triphthongs are only three in number, eau, ieu, iew. Like the 
improper diphthongs, they contain only one vowel sound. 

Note. — U" after q is never counted as part of a diphthong, or triphthong. 

sound called? What letter is formed, when the sound is entirely stopped 
by closing the organs with the tongue against the teeth ? what with the lips 
compressed ? what with the throat compressed ? In what other way is a 
mute formed, besides in the termination of a vowel sound? What then is 
a mute ? a semi-vowel ? a vowel ? 

d. 13. On what does the nature of a mute or semi-vowel depend? When 
is it a dental ? On what does the nature of a vowel depend ? 

a. 14. Which of the letters are vowels? What are all the rest? Which 
of the letters in the word Philadelphia are vowels? Which are consonants? 
Tell the vowels and consonants in your own name. 

c. 15. When are w and y consonants ? 16. What is a diphthong ? 17. What 
is a proper diphthong? an improper diphthong? 18. Name the proper diph- 

d. 19. What is to be remarked of the improper diphthongs? 

c. 20. What is a triphthong ? 

d. 21. Name the triphthongs. What is to be remarked of them ? of u 
after q ? 



22. The Consonants are divided into Mutes and Semi-vowels, 

23. The mutes and semi-vowels may be distinguished both by 
the name and the sound. 

First, in naming the mutes, the accompanying vowel generally 
follows ; in naming the semi- vowels, it precedes : thus, pe, he ; 
c/, el. 

Secondly, in sounding the mutes, the voice is stopped short, 
as in ap. In sounding the semi- vowels, the voice may be pro- 
longed, as in al. 

24. The mutes are ^, 6, t, ^> ^) and c and g hard. 

25. The semi- vowels are jf, Z, m, ?2, r, s, v, a?, 2;, and c and g soft. 

26. Four of the semi-vowels, Z, m, n, r, are also called liquids, 

27. The consonants are sometimes divided according to the 
part of the vocal organs by which they are formed. 

28. The principal divisions of this sort are labials, dentals^ 
palatals, gutturals, nasals, and Unguals. 

29. Labials are formed chiefly by the lips, dentals by the teeth^ 
palatals 'by the palate, gutturals by the throat, nasals by the 
nose, and linguals by the tongue. 

30. The labials are p, h, f, v ; the dentals t, d, s, z ; the palatals 
g soft and j ; the gutturals k, q, and c and g hard ; the nasals m 
and n ; and the linguals I and r, 


31. The sounds of the letters can be learned by the ear only. 

32. The same letter often has several sounds. These are de- 

c. 22. How are the Consonants divided ? 23. In what two ways may the 
Mutes and Semi-vowels be distinguished ? How are they distinguished by the 
name ? how by the sound ? 24. Name the mutes. 25. Name the semi^ 
vowels. 26. Which of the semi-vowels are also csiWed liquids? 27. In 
what other way are the consonants sometimes divided ? 28. What are the 
principal divisions of this sort? 29. By what organs is each of these classes 
chiefly formed? 30. Which are the labials? the dentals? &c. 31. How only 
can the sounds of the letters be learned? 32. What are some of the terms 
by which the different sounds of a letter are sometimes designated ? 



) ( 

, fire 

1^ 1 

f ■ 

\ tivo 



( tu-o 


1 four 


► ' 

r three 


signaled by the terms long, short, broad, flat, hard, soft, rough, 
smooth, &c. 

33. In giving examples of the sounds of the different letters, the impro- 
per diphthongs are omitted for the reasons already in part assigned. In 
every improper diphthong, one of the vowels is not sounded at all, and 
may therefore be disregarded; and the sound of the other vowel will be 
found in its proper place in the following table of the vowel sounds. 
The same remark is applicable to the triphthongs. A few examples of 
foreign sounds of the letters are also omitted, as of au in hautboy, &c. 

34. Sounds of the Vowels. 

fate, fare, far, fall, fat, J T 

mete, met, I A\ n <Tip 7 a, as in deign j i, in England ; o, in sew, 

piue, pin, > ^„ j'^f \ ^? a^ in machine ; w, in flirt j y, in filial. 

no, notj nor, move, i " i w, as in son. 

tube, tub, full, 3 f e, as in bury ', i, in busy ', w, in languid. 

Note. — fFand y have the sound of u and i in corresponding situations. 

35. Sounds of the Diphthongs. 

OT and OU are always sounded as in loin^ loud. 
0\ and OW are sounded like oi and ou. 

Sounds of the Consonants, 

36. B has a uniform sound, as in hut, and is sometimes silent, as in subtle. 

37. C has the sound of A;, as in came; of 5, as in centre ; of sh, as in social; 
ofz, as in suffice ; and is sometimes silent, as in victuals. 

38. C is sounded hard like k before a, o, it ; soft like s |j 
before e, i, y ; thus : ca^ ka ; ce^ se ; ci, si ; co, ko ; cu, 
ku; cy, sy. 

39. C before e, i, and y, followed by another vowel, has the sound of 
sh ; as in ocean. 

40. C before a consonant or at the end of a syllable, is always sounded 
hard ; as in crawl, rubric. 

41. Ch has the sound ofish in words purely English, as in chin ; of sh in 
words derived from the French, as in chaise ; and of k in words derived 
from the Hebrew, Greek, or other ancient languages, as in chorus, Chaldee. 1 

d. 33. Why are the improper diphthongs omitted in the table of sounds ? 
What else is omitted? 34. What are the sounds of a? e? &c. 35. How 
are oi and ou sounded? oy and owl 36. What is the sound of 5? 37, Give 
all the sounds of c. 

h. 38. When is c sounded hard and when soft 7 

d. 39. When has c the sound of sh ? 40. How is c sounded before a conso? 
nant, or at the end of a syllable? 41. Name all the sounds of ch. 4% 


42. In arch and its compounds, ch before a consonant is always sounded 
like tsli, as in archbisJwp ; but before a vowel it is sounded sometimes like 
tsh, and sometimes like k, as in arch-enemy, archangel. 

43. D has its own sound, as in drum; the sound of J, as in soldier; and 
sometimes at the end of words, that of?, as in tripped. 

44. F has always its own sound, as in from; except in of, where it has 
the sound of v. 

45. G has its own sound, which is hard; the sound of j, which is soft; 
and is silent before n, as in gnaw. 

46. G is sounded hard before a^ o, u^ as in gave, go, 
gun; but before e, i, y, it is sometimes hard and some- 
times soft, as in beget, begin, ^oggy ; gem, giant, gyves, 

47. G before a consonant, or at the end of a syllable, is always sounded 

48. Ng has a sound peculiar to itself, as in ring. 

49. Gh has the sound of/, as in tough; of g hard, as in burgh; or is 
silent, as in plough. 

50. H has but one sound, as in holy, and is often silent. 

51. J has always its own sound, as in joy ; except in hallelujah, where it 
has the sound of y. 

52. K ha-s but one sound, as in keep ; it is never sounded before n, as in 
knife ; and never doubled, except in Hahakkuk. 

53. L has always its own sound, as in liquid ; and is sometimes silent, 
as in talk. 

54. M has always its own sound, as in map. 

55. N has its own sound, as in man ; and the sound ofng, as in hank. 

56. P has always its own sound, as in pill; except in cup-hoard, when it 
is sounded like h. 

67. Ph has the sound of f, as in philosophy ; of v, as in Stephen ; or is 
silent, as in apophthegm. 

58. Q has the sound ofk, and is always followed by u, as in quick. 

59. R has a rough sound, as in rock; and a soft sound, as in hark. 

60. S has its own sound, as in sister ; the sound of 2;, as in rosy ; of sh, as 
in sugap-; of zh, as in pleasure ; and is silent, as in island. 

61. Sc is sounded hard before a, o, u ; and soft before 

What is the sound of ch in arch and its compounds? 43 — 45. What is the 
sound of dl f^ g1 

h. 46. When is g sounded hard? when soft? 

d. 47. What is the sound of g before a consonant, or at the end of a syl- 
fible ? 48—60. What is the sound of ng ? gh 1 h^ &lc. 


e, ^, y ; thus, sea, ska ; see, se ; sei, si ; seo, sko ; scu, 

sku ; sey, ^y. 

Sc also has the sound o^sh, as in conscious. 

62. T has its own sound, as in take; the sound of shf as in patient; of 
fsi^, as in fustian; and is often silent, as in hustle. 

63. Th has two sounds of its own, as in thinj this. It has also the simple 
sound of ty as in Thomas. 

64. V has but one sound, as in vain. 

65. W has the sound of oo, as in water; and is often silent, as in answer. 

66. Wh has the sound ofhio, as in whale, (sounded as if written hwale.) 

67. X has the sound of z, as in Xenophon; the sound of ks, as in exer- 
cise; and of ^2;, as in exist 

68. Y (consonant) has its own sound, as in yes. 

69. Z has its own sound, as in zeal; the sound of 2^, as in azure; and is 
silent, as in rendezvous. 

70. For more particular information respecting the sounds of 
the letters, the beginner should consult a Spelling Book, and the 
more advanced student his Dictionary, 


71. Spelling is putting letters together correctly, so $,s to form 
syllables and words. 

72. A word is a number of letters used together to re- 
present some idea. 

A few words consist of only one letter each. 

73. A syllable is so much of a word as can be pro- 
nounced by one impulse of the voice ; as, con in contain. 

74. Dividing words into syllables is called Syllabication. 

75. There are many rules for dividing words into syllables. These are 
more properly found in a spelling book or dictionary. The two following 
are the most important. 

b. 61. When is sc sounded hard, and when soft? What other sound 
has sc? 

d. 62—69. What are the sounds oUUh? v? &c. 

c. 70. Where is more particular information to be obtained respecting 
the sounds of the letters? 1\. \N hdii is Spelling? 

b. 72—73. What is a word ? a syllable ? 

d. 74 — 75. What is Syllabication? How is it chiefly to be learned? 
What two rules are important? 


1. Divide compound words into their simple ones ; as, steam- 
boat, rail-road. 

2. Separate the grammatical terminations of words from their 
roots ; as writ-er, writ-ing. 

76. A word of one syllable is called a monosyllable ; 
of two, a DISSYLLABLE ; of three, a trisyllable ; of 
more than three, a polysyllable. 

77. The mode of spelling particular words is to be learned chiefly from 
the Spelling Book a.nd Dictionary, and from habits of attention in reading. 

«^ The following rules for spelling compound and derivative words are 
of importance. 


1. Words ending in y, 

78. Words ending in y preceded by a consonant^ change y 
into i on taking an additional syllable; as, fancy, fanciful^ (not 

79. The y is not changed into i when the additional syllable begins with 
i ; as tarry, tarrying (not tarrying.) 

80. Words, ending in y preceded by a vowel, retain the yon taking an ad- 
ditional fciyllable; diS joy, joyful. 

2. Words ending in silent e. 

81. Words ending in silent e, drop e on taking an additional 
syllable beginning with a vowel ; as, care, caring (not care-ing.) 

82. In words ending in ce and ge, the e is retained before terminations 
beginning with a, a, u ; as change, changeable. The object of this is to 
preserve the soft sound of c and g. 

Blame, move, reprove, sale and their compounds, retain e before able ; 
as blame, blameable. 

a. 78. What is a monosyllable? &c. 

d. 77. How is spelling chiefly to be learned ? In what class of words 
only are rules of any importance ? 

c. 78 — 80. What is the rule about words ending in y? the exception? — 
What is the rule for words ending in y preceded by a vowel? Spell the 
derivatives formed by Bidding ful to beauty, duty, bounty, joy, play. Spell 
the words formed by adding es to fly, glory, spy, deny. Add er and est to 
lazy, ugly, holy. 

c. 81 — 83. What is. the rule about words ending in silent e.^ When 



Die (to suffer death) makes dying, to prevent the doubling of the i 
(diing) ; and then dye (to colour) retains its e (dye-ing) for the sake of dis- 

83. Words ending in silent e, retain the e on taking an additional syllable 
beginning with a consonant ; as, care, carefid. Except duly, truly, awful, 
judgment, abridgment, acknowledgment, lodgment, argument, 

3. Words ending in II. 

84. Words ending in U drop one I on taking an additional syl- 
lable beginning with a consonant, or on being compounded with 
another word; b.s, full, fuhiess, handful. 

85. Words ending in any other double letter are spelt in composition in 
the same manner as when alone ; as, stiff, stiffly. 

4. Doubling the filial Consonant. 

66. Monosyllables, and words accented on the last syllable, 
ending with a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, 
double that consonant on taking an additional syllable beginning 
with a vowel ; as wit, loitty ; begin, beginning. 

87. If a diphthong precedes, or the accent is not on the last syllable, the 
final consonant is not doubled ; as toil, toiling ; offer, offering. Except tra. 
veiling, ivorshipping, and a few others. 

do words ending in ce and ge retain the e, and why ? What words retain 
e before able? What is remarked of die and dye? What is the rule when 
the additional syllable begins with a consonant? What exceptions? Spell 
the words formed by adding ing to strive, drive, clothe ; by adding able 
to desire, excuse change ; ible to sense, force, &c. 

c. 84 — 85. What is the rule for words ending in II ? For words ending 
in any other double letter ? Spell the words formed by adding to all the 
words, so, most, though, ways, mighty ; by combining with and all, full and 
fill, hurt and full. 

c. 86 — 87. What is the rule about doubling the fined consonant? When 
is the final consonant not doubled ? What exceptions? Spell the words 
formed by adding i77g to admit, permit, counsel, cover, scan, split. 

General Exercise on the four rules of Spelling. — Correct the spelling of 
the following words, and give the rule for each correction : flyes, cryest, 
comelyer, impliing, dismaied, bloting, distiler, sedatness, entirly, abatment, 
shineing, chargable, valueable, wellcome. 


88. Etymology treats of words. 

89. Words are considered in regard to their Classification^ In- 
flection, and Derivation. 

90. By the Classification of words is meant the arrangement 
of them into different classes, according to their signification and 

91. By the Inflection of words is meant the change of form 
which they undergo. 

92. By the Derivation of words is m.eant tracing them to their 
original form and m.eaning. 


93. The different classes of words are called Parts 
of Speech, 

The parts of Speech in English are nine ; namely, 
the Article^ JSToun, Adjective, Pronoun, Verh, Adverb, 
Conjunction, Preposition, and Interjection. 


94. The words a and the are called Articles. 

95. A is the indefinite Article, the is the definite 

96. A is written an before a vowel or silent h. 

a. 88. Of what does Etymology treat ? 

c. 89. In what three ways may words be considered ? 90. What is 
meant by the Classification of words ? 91. What is meant by their Jn- 
flection ? 92. By their Derivation ? 

a. 93. What are the different classes of words called? How many Parts 
of Speech are there in EngUsh? what are they? 

a. 94. What two words are called Articles ? 95. Which is the Indefi- 
nite 3Lrtic]el Which the De^Tiite article ? 96. When is a written gti? 



97. Sometimes u and eu at the beginning of a word have the 
force of a consonant ; as in unit, eulogy. In such cases, the a, of 
course, is not changed to an, 

98. Jl or an is used only before the singular number ; 
as, a man, an art, 

99. The is used before both numbers ; as, the man, the 

100. Some nouns in the singular without an article before 
them are taken in the widest sense for a whole species ; as, man, 
for mankind. This usage, however, is by no means universal. 
On the contrary, in .many w^ords, the article is used for this very 
purpose ; as, the horse, for horses in general. 

101. A or an was originally ae, ane, or one. In course of time il became 
abbreviated into its present form, and by a usage not uncommon in the 
history of language, the short form acquired a shade of meaning different 
from the long form, though both were originally precisely the same. The 
difference is this. One expresses the idea of unity with emphasis. A ex- 
presses the same idea, only without emphasis. This will be understood at 
once by an example. " Can one man carry this weight?" "No, but two 
could." "Can a man carry this weight?" *' No, but a horse couid." The 
idea o^ unity is expressed in both of these examples; but in the former it is 
emphatic, in the latter it is not. In the former, one is the lea-ding idea, as 
distinguished from two or more; in the latter, man is the leading idea, as 
distinguished from horse or other animal. 

102. A similar remark may he made in regard to the. The word the was 
originally thaet, or that. In course of time it became abbreviated, and the 
short form acquired, in usage, a shade of meaning difierent from the origi- 
nal long one. That is demonstrative with emphasis; the is demonstrative 
without emphasis. 

c. 97. What is remarked of u and eu at the beginning of a word ? 

b. 98. Before which number is a or an used ? 99. Before which is the 

c. 100. What is remarked of nouns in the singular without any article? 
Is this usage universal? Use the indefinite article with the following 
words: inkstand, history, humble, arch, bird, army, unit, eulogy, onion, 

d. 101. What was a or an originally ? What is the difference of mean- 
ing between the short and long forms of this word ? How is this differ- 
ence illustrated ? 102. What was the word the originally ? What is the 


103. A and the, then, may be considered the same as one and that, only 
abbreviated in form, and unemphatic in meaning. 

104. That these words have acquired a real difference in meaning as 
well as form, is evident. 1. Because a and the cannot stand without a 
noun, one and that can. Thus, I can say, "give me one, give me that,'' 
but I cannot say, " give me a, give me the.'' 2. Because a and the do not 

I necessarily contradistinguish from two and this, as one and that do. 3. Be- 

I cause in many cases they are evidently not interchangeable. "A kingdom 

for a horse," and ** one kingdom for one horse," express different ideas. 

j '* The revolution" means, in this country, " the American" revolution. — 

" ITiat revolution" may or may nat. 
; 105. In considering the article as forming a separate part of speech, I 
I have acted in obedience to the immemorial usage of all languages. The pro- 
per rank of a seems to be with the indefinite pronouns, and that of the with 
the demonstrative pronouns. If Grammar were a science to be written 
anew, very likely both the article and the adjective pronouns would be 
called, as in their nature they truly are, Adjectives. Even in that case, 
however, it is to be remarked, not so much would be gained in the way of 
simplification as some persons have supposed. We should require in that 
case a sub-division of adjectives, corresponding to the present sub-division 
of the adjective pronouns, for these words have differences of meaning and 
construction, and, in those languages that admit of changes of termination, 
differences also of form, that clearly distinguish them, both from ordinary 
adjectives, and from each other. 


106. A Noun is the name of any person^ place^ or 
thing ; as boy, school, book. 

difference in meaning between these two forms of the word ? 103. How 
then may a and the be considered ? 104. What proof is given that these 
words have acquired a real difference of meaning l 105. Why is the ar- 
ticle treated as a separate part of speech? What seems to be the proper 
rank of a_and the ? If grammar were a new science, where would both 
the articles and adjective pronouns be ranked ? Would as much be gained 
in simplification by that arrangement as is generally supposed? Why not? 
a. 106. Whsit is a. noun? What is your own ?iawe ? Repeat the ?iames 
of any five persons that you know. What is the name of the place you 
live in ? Repeat the names of any five places that you can think of What 
is the name of that part of the body with which you hear? Repeat the 
names of any other five parts of the body that you can think of What is 
the name of that part of the building which is made to let in light ? Re- 


107. The word thing in the foregoing definition is used in its 
widest sense, to signify not merely external objects and sub- 
stances existing in nature, but abstract qualities and relations, 
whatever in fact may be a subject of thought or discourse. No- 
thing, if considered as an idea or conception of the mind, is in 
some sense a thing, although this may seem to involve a contra- 
diction. It may also be considered as two words ; namely, no, an 
adjective, and thing, a noun ; as, no thing, no hook, no apples. 

108. Letters or words used technically are to be considered 
nouns ; as. " C is sounded hard before a, o, ii, &c. ;" " Ih means 
pound." " Me is a pronoun." 

109. The Noun is generally taken as the starting point in 
teaching a child to analyze a sentence. The beginner may learn 
to distinguish a noun, 1. by certain mechanical contriva7ices, if 
they may be so called, as by putting before it one of the articles ; 
thus, a noise, the quality, or by putting before the word any com- 
m.on adjective with which the pupil is familiar; thus, -good apple, 
good hook, good man, &c. " or, 2. by directing the attention of 
the pupil to the true nature and use of the word, as a name. 
Whatever may become a subject of thought or discourse, must 
have a name, and that name is a noun. Let the pupil be called 
upon to name any thing which he hears, sees, thinks of, remem- 

peat the names of any other five things that you can see. Repeat the 
names of any five things that you cannot see. To what part of speech do 
all these words, which you have repeated, belong ? 

a. A and the are articles ; good., had, great, small, &c., are adjectives, — 
Any word v)hich makes sense with an article or adjective before it, is a 
noun. Which of the words are nouns in the following expressions : a 
good man ; small book ; a pen ; bad passions ; a good quality ; the air ; 
great beauty; small point? Which of the words in paragraph 106 are 
nouns? Which in 107? 

c, 107. In what sense is the word thing here used ? W^hat is remarked 
of the word nothing ? 108. What is remarked of letters and words used 
technically? 109. In learning to analyze a sentence, what part of speech 
is it best to begin with ? What are some of the mechanical contrivances 
by which a noun may be distinguished ? How may a noun be distinguished 
without any such artifice? Illustrate this. Which of the words in para- 
graph 108 are nouns ? Which in 109 ? 


bers, or which may in any way be suggested to his thoughts, and 
then telJ him the word is a noun. 


110. Nouns are divided into various classes, according to their 
meaning. The principal of these are Proper^ Common^ Collec- 
tive, Abstract, Verbal, and Diminutive. 

111. Proper nouns are names given to individuals ; 
as, John, London. Delaware. 

112. Common nouns are names given to whole classes ; 
as, boy, city, river. 

113. When a proper noun is used to denote a whole class, it 
becomes common, and generally has an article before it; as 
" the twelve Ccesars,^^ " the Cicero of the age." 

114. A collective noun is one which, in the singular number, 
signifies many ; as, army, 'people. A collective noun is also 
called a noun o^ multitude. 

115. An abstract noun is one which denotes the name of a 
quality apart from the substance to which it belongs ; as, sweet- 
ness^ beauty. 

IIG. A verbal noun is one derived from a verb; as, reading. 
It is also called a ptarticipial noun. 

117. A diminutive noun is one derived from another and ex- 
pressing some diminution of the original meaning ; as, stream, 
streamlet ; leaf, leajlet ; liilL hillock ; duck, duckling ; goose, 

c. 110. ^Vhat are the principal classes of nouns ? 

a. 111. What are Proper nouns? 112. Common nouns? Which of 
the following nouns are Proper : James, slate, river, Washington, book, Eng- 
land, Elizabeth, table, chair, Hudson. Name five other nouns which are 
proper. Name five which are common. 

c. 113. When does a Proper noun become common'? 114. What is a 
Collective nonni 115. An Ahstract no\m1 116. A Verhal noun? 117. 
A Diminutive noun ? 



118. Nouns may be considered not only in regard to their ge- 
neral and absolute meaning, by which they are of some kind or 
class ; but also in regard to the various relative ideas which they 
are capable of expressing, by which they have the attributes of 
gender^ number^ person, and case. 

119. A noun has the attribute of Gender from its expressing 
sex ; of Number, from its expressing unity and plurality ; of 
Person, from its expressing the relation of the noun to the 
Speaker ; and of Case, from its expressing the relation of the 
noun to some verb, preposition or other noun. According to this, 

120. Gender is the distinction of sex ; Number, of unity and 
plurality ; Person, of the relation of a noun to the Speaker ; 
and Case, of the relation of a noun to some verb, preposition, or 
other noun. 


121. Gender is the distinction of sex. 

122. JYouns have three genders, masculine, femi- 
nine, and NEUTER. 

123. The masculine denotes the male sex ; as, boy, 

124. The feminine denotes the female sex ; as^ 
girl, woman. 

125. The neuter denotes any thing without sex; 
as, book, river. 

126. There are three ways of distinguishing sex : 1, by the 

c. 118. What attributes have nouns ? 119. How does a noun get each 
attribute of these attributes ? 120. What is Gewc^er? Number? Person? 
Case ? 

a. 121. What is Genderl 122. How many genders have nouns ? 123. What 
does the Masculine denote? 124. The Feminine? 125. The Neuter ? 

c. 126. How many ways of distinguishing sex 1 What is the first ? the 
second? the third? 



use of different words, as bachelor, maid; 2. by difference of ter- 

mination, as ab5of, dJohess ; 3 

by prefixing or affixing anothe 

word, as Ae-goat, she-godX ; land/or^, IdiUddady 

1. Different ivords. 




























( mistress 
( miss 


cow or heifer 

























I m.adam 



Sire, a horse 


Friar j 
Monk S 























2. Difference of termination 














c. What is the 

feminine of bachelor? beau? &c. &c. What is the mas- 

ctdine of maid ? belle ? &c. 

c. What is the feminine of abbot? actor? &c. What is the masculine of 
abbess? actress? &c. 




























































( directress 
( directrix 
























( sultana 
( sultaness 



































3. Prefixing or affixing another ivord. 













c. What is the feminine of landZor^, &c. ? What is the masculine of 
lamllodi/ ? 


Masculine. Feminine. Masculine. Feminine. 

PeacocA; peahen Male-child female-child 

Coc/c-sparrow /len-sparrow 

127. Some nouns are either masculine or feminine ; as, parent. 
These are said to be of the common gender. 

128. Most masculines have no corresponding feminine ; as, 
baker, breiver, &c. A few feminines have no corresponding 
masculines ; as, laundress, sempstress, &c. 

129. In some of the words which have both masculine and 
feminine terminations, the masculine is ordinarily used to denote 
both sexes, wherever the office or profession is the idea chiefly 
intended. When, however, it is the intention of the sentence to 
designate the sex of the individual spoken of, the change of ter- 
mination is to be observed. Thus, " the poets of the age" would 
be correct when speaking of poets of both sexes ; but the " best 
poetess of the age" would be used when speaking of only the 
fem.ale sex. 

130. In speaking of animals that are of inferior size, or whose 
sex is not known or not regarded, they are often considered as 
without sex : thus, we say of a cat " it is treacherous," of an in- 
fant " it is beautiful," of a deer ^^it was killed." 

131. The English is, perhaps, the most philosophical of all languages in 
regard to gender. In other languages things without life are generally 
masculine, feminine, or neuter, according to their terminations, and with- 
out reference to sex or the absence of it. But in English, gender is strictly 
a distinction of sex, things without sex being invariably neuter. In conse- 
quence of this peculiarity, the language is capable of a rhetorical beauty, 
which is unknown in other languages. Personification (which means, 
considering inanimate objects as persons, endowed with life,) is, in its or- 
dinary Jbrm, one of the boldest figures of rhetoric, and can be used with 
propriety only in the highest flights of poetry and oratory. There is, how- 

c. 127. When are nouns said to be of the common gender '? 128. What 
is revci^rkedi o? corresponding masculines and feminines? 129. When is 
the masculine termination used to denote both sexes? When must the 
change of termination be observed ? 130. What animals are often con- 
sidered as without sex? 

d. 131. What is remarked of the English Language in regard to gender? 
How are other languages in this respect? What is the consequence of 
this peculiarity 2 What is Personification ? What lower kind of Person!- 


ever, a lower kind of personification which can be used in English, and 
frequently with great beauty. When, for instance, it is desirable to raise 
the style slightly above the tenor of prose composition, it can often be 
done with the greatest ease, simply by applying lie and she to neuter nouns. 
This indirect kind of personification at once animates and enlivens the 
style, without rendering it passionate or overwrought. In this way, we 
^ say of the Earth, " she is fruitful," of the Sun,'' he has risen in his strength," 
of Time, ''he flies on rapid wings," &c. 

132. When this animated kind of phraseology is used, it is impossible 
to give any uniform rule for determining what nouns should be considered 
as masculine and what feminine. In general, however, in such cases, 
nouns become masculine, which indicate superior strength, energy, or firm- 
Tiess. Those on the contrary are feminine which indicate weakness or 
timidity, or which are of a passive rather than an active nature. Examples 
of those which are considered masculine are. Sun, Time, Death, Love, &c. 
Examples of feminines are, Moon, Earth, Church, Nature, &c. 


133. JYumber is the distinction of unity and plurality. 

134. JYouns have two numbers ; the singular and 

the PLURAL. 

135. The Singular denotes one, the Plural more 


Mode of forming the Plural. 

136. The Plural is generally formed by adding 6^ to 
the Singular ; as, booky books. 

137. Exception 1. — Nouns ending in s, sh, ch soft, z, x, or 
o, form the plural by adding es ; as, miss^ misses ; lash, lashes ; 
church, churches ; topaz, topazes ; box, boxes ; hero, heroes. 

fication exists in English ? What is the advantage of this indirect Personi- 
fication? 132. Can any uniform rule be given for the gender in such 
cases ? In general, what nouns become masculine? Mvh3,t feminine? Ex- 
amples of each. 

a. 133. What is Number? 134. How many numbers have nouns? — 
135. What does the singular denote? the plural? 

h. 136. How is the plural generally formed ? 

c. 137. What nouns form the plural by adding es? 


138. The usage in regard to nouns ending in o is by no means uniform. 
<S only is added in all cases where o is preceded by a vowel, and also in 
many cases where it is preceded by a consonant. Examples of the former 
are trioy cameo, folio, &c. The principal examples of the latter are, canto, 
cento, grotto, junto, portico, duodecimo, octavo, quarto, solo, tyro, halo. 

139. Exception 2. — Nouns in for fe change forfe into ves 
in the plural ; as, loaf, loaves ; life, lives, 

140. The following form the plural according to the general rule, viz ; — 
Brief, chief, fief, grief, mischief, kerchief, handkerchief, dwarf, surf, turf 
fife, strife, hoof, roof proof, reproof, safe, scarf, gulph. Nouns in ff also 
follow the general rule; as muff, muffs ; except staff, which makes staves. 

141. Exception 3. — Nouns in y after a consonant, change y 
into ies in the plural ; as, lady, ladies. 

Ii2. Nouns in y after a vowel do not change y into ies ; as day, days. 


Nouns irregular in the Plural, 























144. The compounds of man form the plural in the same manner as 
the simple word ; as alderman, aldermen. Care should be taken, however, 
not to confound compounds of the word man with words that accidentally 
end in those three letters. Thus statesman is really compounded of two 
words, states and man ; but Turcoman, Mussulman, are simple words like 

d. 138. What is remarked of nouns ending in o? In what cases is s only 
added 1^ 

c. 139. What is the rule for nouns in f or fe? 

d. 140. What words in / and fe follow the general rule ? What is re- 
marked of nouns in ff? 

c. 141. What is the rule for nouns in y ? 

d. 142. When does y not change into ies ? 

c. Correct the following plurals, and give the rule for each correction : 
skys, churchs, cantoes, armys, wolfs, potatos, knifes, echos, leafs, wishs. 

c. 143. What is the plural of man? woman ? child? &c. 

d. 144. What is remarked of the compounds of man ? What is the 
plural of Turcoman ? Mussulman ? 




talismanj and form the plural regularly, thus : Turkomans^ Mussulmans^ 

145. Some nouns have in the plural two forms with different 

Singular. Plural. 

Regular. Irregular, 

brothers (o/same^arenZs) brethren {of same society) 
dies {for coining) dice {for gaming) 

geniuses {men of genius) genii {aerial spirits) 
indexes {tables of refer.) indices {signs in algebra) 











It. , . pease 
' distinct objects i • 


* in the mass 

Plural of Compounds. 

146. Compounds, consisting of two or more words connected 
by a hyphen, are generally composed, either of two nouns of 
which one is used in the sense of an adjective, Rsman-trap, where 
man is really an adjective ; or of a nowi and adjective, as court- 
martial ; or of a noun and some expression having the force of 
an adjective^ ^is father-in-law, where in-law has the force of an 
adjective as much as the word legal. In all these compounds, 
the sign of the plural is added to that part of the compound which 
really constitutes the noun, whether at the end or not ; thus, man- 
traps, courts-martial, fathers-in-law. In forming Xhe possessive 
case, the rule is different, the sign of the possessive being uni- 
formly added to the end of the compound expression : thusj 
father-in-laio, ^l. father s-in-laiv, poss. faiher-in-laio^s. 

Plural of Foreign Words. 

147. Words adopted without change from foreign languages 
generally retain their original plurals. 

c. 145. What is the regular plural of hrotJier ? What the irregular plu- 
ral? What is the difference in meaning betv/een these two forms ? An- 
swer the same questions respecting die, genius, &c. 146. In what three 
ways are compound nouns generally composed? To which part of such 
a compound is the sign of the plural to be added? What is the rule in re- 
gard to the possessive ? 147. What is remarked of the plural of foreign 



148. These words are now very numerous, particularly in 
works on science and the arts, and not a few are to be found in 
works of every description. Only a few of the most common can 
be given here. For the others, the learner should consult a dic- 











149. Some of these foreign w^ords are so far domesticated in 
the language as to have the English form of the plural as well as 
their original one. Among these are the following : 


































Bandit (handitto) 


English PliLral. Foreign Plural. 

cherubs cherubim 

seraphs seraphim 

memorandums memoranda 

encomiums encomia 

bandits banditti 

virtuosos virtuosi. 

150. Some nouns are used only in the singular. Among these 
are the names o^ metals ^ virtues^ vices, arts, sciences, abstract 
qualities, and of things that are either iceighed or measured ; as, 
gold, industry, idleness, sculpture, geometry, wisdom, flour, 

151. "Some nouns are used only in the plural. Among these 
are annals, antipodes, archives, ashes, assets, clothes, measles, 

words? 148. What is said of the number oT such words? What is the 
plural of desideratum ? datum ? &c. 149. What is remarked of some of these 
foreign words? Give both the Enghsh and the foreign plural of cherub? 
seraph? &c. 150. What kind of nouns are used only in the slngidar? Give 
an example of each. 151. Mention some nouns which are used only in 


oats, tidings, victuals, wages ; also the names of things consist- 
ing of two parts, as bellows, scissors, tongs, &c. 

152. Some nouns are alike in both numbers. Among these 
are deer, sheep, trout, salmon, &lc. ; also several foreign words 
as apparatus, series, &c. 

153. Many nouns are sometimes alike in both numbers, and at 
other times have a a regular form for the plural. Among these 
are head, brace, pair, couple, dozen, score, &c. Thus we say 
*' He bought twenty dozen of them," and " He bought them in 

154. Some nouns are plural in form, but either singular oi 
plural in meaning. Among them are amends, means, news, 
riches, &c. ; also the names of certain sciences, as conies, optics, 
ethics, mathematics, &c. 

155. Means and amends are singular when they refer to only one ob- 
ject, plural when they refer to more than one. The singular mean is also 
used to signify strictly the middle between two extremes. News is rarely 
found with a plural signification. Riches (derived from the French richesse,) 
is properly singular, though it has, by usage, both a singular and a plural 
signification. Alms (in old English, almesse,) is strictly singular, both in 
meaning and by derivation, although it has in appearance the form of the 


156. Person distinguishes the relation of a noun to 
the speaker, 

157. JsTouns have three persons^ First, Second, 
and Third. 

158. The First person is the Speaker, the Second is 
THE ONE spoken TO, the Third is the one spoken of. 

the plural. 152. Some that are alike in both numbers. 153. Some that 
are sometimes alike in both numbers, and sometimes form the plural regu- 
larly. 154. Some that are plural in form, but either singular or plural in 

d. 155. What is remarked of means and amends? news? riches? alms? 

a. 156. What does Person distinguish? 157. How ma7iy persons have 
nouns ? 158. What is the first person ? the second ? the third ? 


159. Instances of the use of nouns in the first Person are not common, 
and as no change in the form of the word takes place in consequence of 
the person, some grammarians omit it altogether in speaking of nouns. It 
is not a point perhaps of much practical importance. The following sen- 
tences, however, seem to be indisputable examples of nouns in the first 
person : — " The Elder unto the elect lady and her children, whom I love, 
&XJ."— John, ii. 1. " The Elder unto the well-beloved Gaius, whom I 
love, &c." — John, iii, 1. " Paul, a servant, &c., to Titus, mine own son, 
&c." In these examples, the pronouns / and mine indicate the person of 
Elder and Paul, just as clearly, and by just the same kind of evidence that 
the pronoun her indicates the gender of the word lady. 


160. Case distinguishes the relation of a noun to 
some verb, preposition, or other noun. 

161. JYouns have three cases, Nominative; Posses- 
sive, and Objective. 

162. The relation indicated by the case of a noun includes three ideas, 
viz : those of subject, ohject, and ownership. A noun may be to a verb in 
the relation of its subject, or that of which the assertion is made, and then 
it is in the nominative case ; or it may be to a verb or preposition in the 
relation of an object, or that on which some action or relation terminates, 
and then it is in the objective case ; or it may have to some other noun the 
relation of ownership or possession, and then it is in the possessive case. 
According to this view of the subject, 

163. The JVominative Case is that in which some- 

164. The Possessive Case is that in which something 


165. The Ohjective Case is that in which the noun 


d. 159. What is remarked of the use of nouns in the first person ? What 
have some grammarians done in consequence? What instances are given 
of the use of nouns in the first person ? 

a. 160. What does case distinguish ? 161, How maiiy cases have nouns? 

d. 162. What three ideas are included under the head of case? When a 
noun is the subject of the verb, in what case is it ? V/hen a noun is the 
object of a verb or preposition, in what case is it? When a noun expresses 
the idea of ownership, in what case is it ? 


166. It is of great importance that the pupil should learn as early as pos- 
sible, to distinguish between the Nominative and Objective cases. The 
Possessive may be recognised at once by its form. But to distinguish 
readily the other two, is one of the greatest stumbling-blocks to beginners. 
It is not believed that the pupil ordinarily learns the real nature of these 
cases by minute and cumbersome definitions. The definitions given are 
believed to be sufficiently accurate, and are so short and compact as to be 
easily committed to memory. But a mere rehearsal of the definitions is 
not sufficient. No mode should be left untried, which the ingenuity of the 
teacher can invent, of directing the attention of the learner to the true re- 
lation of the noun, as being the subject, or the dject of the verb. The 
learner is assisted also in distinguishing the cases by being told that the 
nominative goes before, and the objective comes after the verb. Where the 
noun is the name of a person, the cases may also be distinguished by the 
nominative's answering to who, and the objective to whom; thus, John 
struck Thomas. Who struck Thomas ? Ans. — John, (nom.) Whom did 
he strike? Ans. — Thomas y {oh].) 

a. 163 — 165. What is the Nominative case ? the Possessive ? the Ob- 
jective ? 

a. Is anything asserted of John in the sentence, John writes ? In what 
case is John ? Why ? Because something is asserted of it. In what case 
is horse in the sentence, the horse runsi Why? In what case is James in 
the sentence, Jcwes strikes the table ? Why? What is the object which 
James strikes ? The table. In Mvha.t case is table ? In the objective case. 
Why ? Because it is the object of the verb strikes. (N. B. — Strikes, writes, 
runs, and all those words which are used to assert or affirm something, are 
called verbs.) John writes a letter. In what case is letter? Why ? Charles 
reads a book. In what case is Charles? Why? In what case is book? 
Why ? Thomas brings books to school. What case is Thomas ? Why ? 
What case is books? Why? What case is school? The Objective. — 
Why ? Because it is the object of the preposition to. (N. B. — A noun com- 
ing after a preposition is in the objective case. A list of the Prepositions 
may be seen on a subsequent page.) William sees a spot on the wall. In 
what case is William ? Why ? Spot ? Why ? Wall ? Why ? 

a. In like manner tell which of the nouns are in the nominative, and 
which in the objective case, and the reason for it, in each of the following 
sentences : Samuel has a pencil in his pocket ; William sees a man through 
the window, &c. 

d. 166. Which of the cases may be recognised by its form? Which 
two is it difficult at first to distinguish? What is remarked of dejinitions 1 
To what should the attention of the learner be chiefly directed ? Are 
there any other modes of distinguishing the cases ? Which case goes be- 
fore the verb? Which after? When the noun is the name of a person, 
which case answers to who ? Which to whom ? 



Form of the Cases. 

167. The Nominative and Objective are alike. 

168. The possessive singular is formed from the no- 
minative singular^ by adding an apostrophe and s, 

169. The possessive plural is formed from the nomi- 
native plural, by adding an apostrophe only Avhen the 
plural ends in Sy and by adding both the apostrophe and 
s when the plural does not end in s. 

170. When the nominative singular ends in ss, or letters of similar sound, 
and the next word begins with s, the possessive singular is formed by add- 
ing an apostrophe only, without an additional s. The object of this is to 
avoid too great a combination of hissing sounds. Thus, '' goodness, sakcy" 
" conscience^ sake.'* 

171. When the nominative ends in a sound with which the apostrophic 
s cannot combine, the word is pronounced as if es were added. Thus 
rhurclis is pronounced exactly like churches. Care should be taken in 
writing these forms, not to be misled by the sound. 

172. In like manner care should be taken not to confound the possessive 
singular and the nominative plural of nouns ending in y after a consonant, 
which are pronounced alike, though written differently ; as, lady, lady'c^r, 

173. The following examples should be thoroughly committed to memory : 





Poss. Ohj. 

Nom. Poss. 



friend'' s friend 

friends friends^ 



man^s man 

men men^s 



churches church 

churches churches^ 



lady^s lady 

ladies ladies' 


h. 167. How are the Nominative and Objective as to form ? 168. How 
is the possessive singular formed? 169. ^\\e possessive plural? 

c. 170. When is the possessive formed by adding an apostrophe only? — 
What is the object of this ? 171. When is the apostrophic s pronounced 
like es or is? 172. In what other case is the possessive singular apt to be 
confounded with the nominative plural? 

a. 174. How do you decline /rieTi^Z ? &c. 


175. The import of the possessive may generally be expressed 
by the preposition of; thus, "man's wisdom" means "the wis- 
dom of manP These two forms of expression, however, are 
not always identical. Thus, " the king's picture" means a pic- 
ture belonging to the king ; but " a picture of the king" means a 
portrait of him. 

176. The origin of the possessive. The apostrophe and s are 
an abbreviation, not of his as has been sometimes asserted, but 
of the Saxon genitive es or is. Thus, " the king's crown" was 
originally " the kingis crown." This phrase might indeed be 
easily resolved into " the king his crown," and some of the 
Hebraisms found in the English version of the Scriptures seem 
to countenance such a hypothesis. But the facts are against it. 
And besides, " queen's" could not be resolved into " queen hers,'''' 
nor " children's" into " children theirs,^^ &c. 

177. The apostrophe and s do not always indicate the posses- 
sive case, as they are sometimes employed to form the plural of 
mere letters or characters used as nouns; as four 3's, ten 6' 5, 
&c.; also to form the singular of verbs of a similar character ; 
as, " he pro^s and con's, and weighs the matter over." 


178. ^n Adjective is a word used to qualify a 
JYbun ; as, good man. 

179. Some grammarians have objected to making adjectives a separate 
part of speech, and have classed them under the head of nouns, because 
they often, if not always, denote some substance, quahty, or property, just 
as truly as nouns do. Thus, "brazen tube" means " a tube made of brass." 
The adjective brazen denotes the same substance that the noun brass does. 
In like manner, waxen implies the substance wax, golden implies the sub- 
Decline, in like manner, the other words given in the table. 

c. 175. What is observed of the import of the possessive? What is the 
difference between "the king's picture," and "a picture of the king." 176. 
What is remarked of the origin of the possessive? 177. When are the 
apostrophe and s used to form the plural? For what else are they some- 
times used ? 

a. 178. What is an adjective ? 

d, 179. Why have some grammarians objected to the present classifica- 


stance gold, hard the quality hardness. The objection is founded in a mis- 
taken view of the true nature of the noun. That which distinguishes the 
noun from the other parts of speech, is not that it expresses some sub- 
stantive idea, and the others do not. On the contrary, every part of speech, 
every word in fact, necessarily expresses some substantive meaning. — 
Thus, above and below have a meaning, and that meaning is some circum- 
stance, quality, or thing, just as much as that expressed by the words top 
and bottom. In the words person, personal, personally, personify, thought, 
thoughtful, thoughtfully, thinks, &c., we have the same substantive idea 
or thing running through a whole series of words, each of which is a dif- 
ferent part of speech. The noun then is distinguished from the other 
parts of speech, not from its expressing some substantive idea, but from 
its being the name of that idea. If we speak or think of the name of 
that idea, we use a noun. If we connect that idea with any noun as one 
of its qualities, accidents, or attributes, but without affirmation, it is an ad- 
jective. For further illustrations of this point, see the remarks upon the 

180. Nouns become adjectives when they are used to express 
some quality of another noun ; as, gold ring, sea water. 

181. Adjectives are sometimes used as nouns, and admit of 
number and case ; as, our superiors, his betters, by fifties, for 
twenty's sake, &c. 

182. Adjectives preceded by the definite articles are often 
used as nouns ; as, " the little that was known of him." When 
the expression refers to persons^ the adjective is always con- 
sidered plural ; as, " the good,^^ meaning good men. 


183. Adjectives which express number are called Numerals. 
184r Numeral Adjectives are of three kinds, — the Cardinal, 
Ordinal, and Multiplicative. 

tion of adjectives ? In what is this objection founded ? By what is the 
noun really distinguished from the other parts of speech ? 

c. 180. When do nouns become adjectives ? 181. How are adjectives 
sometimes used? 182. What is remarked of adjectives preceded by the 
definite article ? 

c. 183. What 2iXQ numeral adjectives? 184. What three kinds of 



185. The Cardinal Adjectives are one, two, three, four, &c. 

186. The Ordinal Adjectives are first, second, third, fourth, 

187. The Multiplicative are single, double, triple, quadruple, 

188. There are also various compound adjectives into which the nume- 
rals enter; as, one-leaved, two-leaved, three-leaved, &c., two-fold, three- 
fold, four-fold, &c. 


189. Adjectives are varied hy comparison. 

190, Most adjectives express qualities which are capable of existing in 
different degrees. Thus, a thing may not only be hlack, but may be blacker 
than some other thing, or the blackest of all things, or may be only blackish^ 
that is, somewhat black, or may be vert/ black, or by far the blackest of the 
things now under consideration, &c. As the degrees in which such a 
quality may exist are infinite, so there is an almost infinite number of 
modes, through circumlocutions and other contrivances of speech, of ex- 
pressing these degrees. In other words, the degrees of comparison may be 
multiplied to almost any extent. Three of these, however, are so ranch 
more common than the rest, that the name is restricted to them. 


191. The Degrees of Comparison are three, the Po- 
sitive. Comparative, and Superlative. 

192. The Comparative and Superlative are formed 
hy adding er and est to the Positive : as, great, greater, 

merals ? 185. What are the cardinal numbers ? 186. The ordinals ? 187. 
The multiplicatives ? 

d. 188. What is remarked of various compound adjectives? 

a. 189. How are adjectives varied ? 

d. 190. What is remarked of the qualities expressed by adjectives ? — 
How is this illustrated by the word black ? What is remarked of the num.' 
her of degrees ? 

a. 191. How many degrees of comparison are there ? 192. How are 





















194. Bad has also evil and ill in the positive ; and much has also many. 
Elder and eldest come regularly from eld, (now obsolete). 

195. The following have two forms of the superlative with 
different meanings. 

Near nearer nearest (in place) next j 

Late later latest (in time) last > in order 

Fore former foremost (in place) first 3 

196. Adjectives (of more than one syllable) are generally 
compared by prefixing more and most; as, numerous, more 
numerous, most numerous. 

197. Dissyllables in y and e generally take er and est ; as, 
happy, happier, happiest; able, abler, ablest. 

198. Adjectives are also compared by prefixing less and least ; 
as, numerous, less numerous, least numerous. 

199. More and most, less and least, in these cases, may be 
parsed separately as adverbs, or the two words may be taken 
together as the comparative or superlative form of the adjective, 

200. Some adjectives form the superlative by adding most to 
the end of the word ; as, upper, upper^wo^L 

the comparative and superlative formed? 193. Compare g"ooJ, had, little, 
much, far. 

d. 194. What is remarked of hadi much? elder and eldest? 

c. 195. Compare near and tell the difference between the two forms of 
the superlative. Compare, in like manner, late, fore. 196. What adjec- 
tives are compared by prefixing more and most? 197. What dissyllables 
take er and est? 198. What other adverbs are used in comparing adjec- 
tives? 199. How are the words more, most, less, least, to be parsed in 
these cases? 200. What other mode of forming the superlative have some 


201. Prior, superior, ulterior, exterior, inferior, &.C., involve 
the idea of comparison, as do also the words previous, preferable, 
and many others, but they are not considered as comparatives, 
and are not followed by than, as English comparatives usually 

202. The termination ish makes what is sometimes called a 
subpositive ; as, bluish, blackish, &c. 

203. Some of the ideas expressed by adjectives are fixed and absolute. 
Among these may be reckoned those which denote some definite number, 
shape, or position; as, two, three, second, third, circular, triangular, per- 
pendicular, &c. ; also those which express the substance of which any 
thing is made, as golden, flaxen, &c. ; also many such words as universal, 
perfect. All such adjectives are incapable of being compared. 


204. A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun; 
aSy " The man is happy ; he is benevolent; he is useful.'^ 

205. There is, I believe, some misapprehension in regard to the precise 
sense in which a pronoun stands instead of a noun. Some writers seem 
lo entertain the opinion that a noun and its pronoun are strictly inter- 
changeable words, and that not only is the latter a substitute for the for- 
mer, but that the former may. in every case, be restored to its supposed 
original place in the sentence. This mistake originated probably from 
confining the attention to examples taken from the third person, where the 
noun may often, though very inelegantly, take the place of the pronoun 
which represents it. Thus, instead of " the man is happy because he is 
benevolent," we may say, '* the man is happy, because the man is benevo- 
lent." But, when Nathan says to David, " Thou art the man," David can- 
not be substituted for thou without destroying the sense. To understand 
precisely in what sense a pronoun is used instead of a noun, it should 
be recollected that a noun has, in the first place, a meaning of its own, in- 

adjectives ? 201. What is remarked of /^nor, sw^enor, &c.? 202. What 
is remarked of the termination zsA? 

d. 203. What kinds of adjectives are not compared, and why? 

a. 204. What is a Pronoun ? 

d. 205. What opinion have some writers entertained in regard to the 
noun and its pronoun? How did this mistake probably originate? What 
two classes of ideas does a noun express ? Which of these are expressed 
by the pronoun ? What are some of the offices of the noun which the 
pronoun may discharge in its place ? 


dependent of its connexion with the other words in the sentence. Thus, 
the word hook, as soon as uttered, conveys to the mind a certain idea. In 
addition to this idea, thus contained in the word itself, a noun is capable 
of conveying to the mind at the same time, certain other ideas in conse- 
quence of its offices, as a possessor, as the subject or object of the verb, as 
indicating some relation to the speaker, or some distinction of sex, &c. — 
Now the pronoun discharges this latter class of duties in place of the 
noun, and often where the noun itself could not be used for the purpose. 
The pronoun is the subject of the verb, the object of the verb, indicates 
the speaker, the person spoken to, the person spoken of, distinguishes sex, 
&c., just as the noun would do in its place. At the same time, the noun 
cannot always, nor even often, replace the pronoun which refers to it. 

Division of the Pronouns, 

206. Pronouns are divided into three classes ; Per- 
sonal, Relative, and Adjective. 

207. Adjective Pronouns are again subdivided into 
four classes ; Possessive, Demonstrative, Distribu- 
tive, and Indefinite. 

208. The Personal Pronouns express the idea of Person by themselves, 
and independently of their connexion with the other words in a sentence. 
Thus, I, thou, he, convey the idea of person at once, as soon as uttered. 
This idea, so far as it is expressed by the relative pronouns, and by nouns, 
is conveyed, not by anything in the meaning of the words themselves, but 
by means of their connexion with other words. Thus, who by itself 
conveys no intimation of person, but it becomes personal as soon as con- 
nected with an antecedent, as he who, thou who, man ivho. A part of the 
adjective pronouns (the Possessive and the Demonstrative,) express indeed 
the idea of person by their own proper meaning, in the same manner as 
the Personal pronoun, but they also express an additional and more im- 
portant idea, which sufficiently distinguishes them from the former class. 

a. 206. How are pronouns divided? — 207. How are the adjective pro- 
nouns SM6-divided ? 

d. 208. What is there peculiar in the Personal pronouns ? How do they 
differ in this respect from the Relative pronouns and from nouns ? What 
is remarked of the Adjective pronouns? How then are they distinguished 
from the Personal pronoun ? Does not every pronoun relate to some 
other word ? How then is the Relative distinguished from the others ? 
What is it that in each class of pronouns gives name to the class ? What 
is the leading idea in the Personal pronouns ? the Relative ? the Adjective ? 



Their Possessive and Demonstrative character is the predominating one 
and gives them their name. In like manner the Relative pronouns are 
distinguished from the other classes. Every pronoun, indeed, so far as it 
is a pronoun at all, necessarily relates to something. But this relation is 
not the leading and prominent idea in any except the Relative pronouns. 
In each class it is tlie leading and prominent idea which gives name to the 
class, and not any property which it possesses exclusive of the rest. Thus, 
the leading idea in the Personal Pronouns is the distinction of Person ; in 
the Relative Pronouns, the relation to the antecedent ; in the Adjective 
Pronouns, the dependence of the word upon some noun in the manner of 
an adjective. 

209. The proper rank of that class of words, here called Adjective Pro- 
nouns, is a matter about which there is a good deal of difference of opin- 
ion. They have the construction of adjectives, being alwa^-s connected 
with a noun, expressed or understood. At the same time, they are used 
without the noun and instead of it, in such a way, and to so much greater 
an extent than ordinary adjectives, as to give them decidedly a Pronominal 
character. They seem in fact to hold a sort of middle position between 
adjectives and pronouns. Hence, they are called by some. Pronominal 
Adjectives ; by others, Adjective Pronouns. I adhere to the latter name, 
because it has been admitted into the grammars of almost all languages, 
ancient and modern, and because I deem any change of established nomen- 
clature a serious evil, not to be incurred unless for the most urgent rea- 
sons. In this case, no substantial error seems likely to arise from classing 
those words under either head. The principal point for the learner, is to 
know which the words are, and to have some tolerably accurate name by 
which to call them. • 


210. Personal Pronouns distinguish the Person. 

211. The Personal Pronouns are I, thou, he, she, it ; 
with their plurals, we, you, they, 

212. Personal Pronouns admit of Gender, JSumher, 
Person, and Case, 

d. 209. About which class of pronouns has there been great difference ol 
opinion? Why have they sometimes been considered Adjectives? What 
on the other hand gives them a Pronomical character ? in what two 
ways have they been called ? Why is the term Adjective Pronoxins ad- 
hered to ? What is the principal point for the learner to know in regard 
to these words. 



213. The personal pronouns are 

thus declined i 



Person. Gender. Nom. Poss. 


Nom. Poss. 


1. m. or f. I mine 


we ours 


2. m. or f. Thou thine 


you yours 


{ masc. He his 


they theirs 


3. < fem. She hers 


they theirs 


( neut. It its 


they theirs 


Note. — ^The above table should be thoroughly committed to memory. 

214. The second person plural had formerly ye both in the 
nominative and the objective. This form is now obsolete in the 
objective, and nearly obsolete in the nominative. 

215. Myself, thyself, himself herself itself with their plurals 
ourselves, yourselves, themselves, are called Compound Personal 
Pronouns. They are in either the nominative or the objective 

216. Analogy would require himself and themselves to be 
hisself and their selves, but custom has determined otherwise. 

217. In the first person, the plural is often used for the singu- 
lar, by Editors, Reviewers, Governors, &c. In the second per- 
son, the plural is generally used for the singular, except in 
addresses to the Supreme Being, or where some special distinc- 
tion is meant. This usage, it is hardly necessary to add, applies 
to the verb, as well as the pronoun. 

218. The fact that no separate forms for the masculine and 
feminine of the First and Second Persons have ever been in- 
ventedV may be accounted for perhaps by inquiring into the 
reason why gender itself was invented. Gender seems to be a 
contrivance to assist in distinguishing more clearly the person 

a. 210. What do Personal Pronouns distinguish ? 211. Which are they? 
212. What do they admit of? 213. How are they dechned? 

c. 214. What is remarked of ye? 215. What are called Compound 
Personal Pronouns ? . What is remarked of their case ? 216. What would 
analogy require of himself and themselves ? 217. What is remarked of 
ihe first person? the second person ? 218. What seems to be the object 


or thing that is the subject of discourse. Now in the first and 
second persons, this is unnecessary. The speaker and the one 
spoken to, are present to the view, and by that very fact need 
nothing else to distinguish them. But the thing spoken of, is or 
may be absent, and needs the distinction of gender to designate 
it more clearly. 

219. The Possessive case of the Personal Pronouns given above, 
should not be confounded with the words my^ thy, his, her, its, 
our, your, their, which are Possessive Adjective Pronouns. 
The two forms of these words, with the exception of his and its, 
are not interchangeable. We cannot say " ours book" for " our 
book." The distinction in use seems to be this: where the noun 
following is expressed, the adjective pronoun is used; where the 
noun following is omitted, the personal pronoun is used in the 
possessive case, governed by the noun understood. This is the 
rule usually adopted in grammars that admit the distinction of 
adjective pronouns. In those which reject this distinction, these 
words are considered as making two forms of the possessive 

220. Hers, its, ours, yours, theirs, should never be written 
with an apostrophe, Tter^s, iVs, oiir^s, &c. 

221. It is often used indefinitely for either number or any 
gender. Thus we say, " It is he,'' " It is she," " It is they," " It 
is I," &c. 


222. Relative Pronouns are those which relate to 
some word going before^ called the antecedent ; aSy " He, 
who wishes to be learned^ must be studious." 

of Gender ? Why is the distinction of gender necessary in the third j9er- 
soTi and not in the ^rsi and second? 219. With what is the Possessive 
case of the Personal pronouns sometimes confounded ? What distinc- 
tion is observed between these two classes of words ? 220. What errone- 
ous mode of writing hers, its, &c, should be guarded against? 22L How 
is it sometimes used ? 

a. 222. What are Relative pronouns? 223. Which are they? 224. 
How is who declined ? Which ? 


223. The Relative pronouns are whoy whichy what, 
and that, 

224. Who and which are alike in both nu7nhers, and 
are thus declined. 

Sing, and Plur. Sing, and Plur, 

Norn, who Nom. tvhich 

Poss. whose Poss. ivhose 

Obj. whom Obj. which. 

225. What and That have no variation. 

326. Who is applied to persons, which to inferior ani- 
mals and things without life ; as, the boy who ; the book 

227. That is often used instead of who or which ; as, 
the boy that reads ; the book that was lost. 

228. The word that is used in three senses. 1. Sometimes it 
has the meaning of who or which ; as, the boy that reads ; and 
then it is a Relative Pronoun. 2. Sometimes it points out a 
noun ; as, that boy ; and then it is an Adjective Pronoun. 3. And 
sometimes it shows the dependence of one verb upon another; as, 
he wished that he had done it; and then it is a Conjunction. 

229. What is a compound relative, including both the 
relative and the antecedent. 

230. It is equivalent in the singular to that which, and in the 
plural to those lohich ; as, in the singular, " Give me lohat I want," 
namely, that which I w^ant ; in the plural, " What appear to be 
faults," that is, those (things) lohich appear to be faults. 

231. Who^ ivhich, and what, when joined with ever or soever, 
become compound relatives, including a relative and some inde- 
finite antecedent; thus, whoever means any one who; what- 
soever^ any thing which, &c. 

c. 225. Are what and that varied ? 

h. 226. How is who applied ? Which ? 227. How is that used ? 

c. 228. In what three senses is that used ? 

b. 229. What is what ? 

c. 230. To what is what equivalent? 231. What is remarked of who. 


232. WJtich and what, are often used as Adjective Pronouns ; 
as, " which things are an allegory." 

233. What, whatever, and whatsoever, are also used both as 
Relative and Adjective Pronouns at the same time ; as, " We lost 
ichat books we had," that is, those books which we had. 

234. Whether (meaning which one of the two) is now obsolete. 
Whether, a Conjunction, is still in use. 

Interrogatives and Responsives. 

235. In asking questions, ivho, which, and ivhat are called 

236. As Interrogatives, they have no antecedent, but relate to 
a w^ord subsequent, contained in the answer. Thus, " Who did 
iti John:' 

237. Who inquires for the na7ne ; which, for the individual ; 
what, for the character or occupation : thus, " Who WTote the 
book ] Mr. Webster. Which of the Websters ] Noah Web- 
ster, Whatw^Lshel A Lexicographer." Again, " W/iO made 
that remark? Mr. Webster. W/?.ic/i of those gentlemen is he] 
TAe o?ie standing by the door. What is hel A Law^yer." 

238. In answering questions, ivho, ivhich, and what are called 

239. The word used to answer the question must be the same 
as the one used to ask it ; thus, Who wrote the book 1 I do not 
know who wrote it. Which of the gentlemen was it] I do not 
know lohich of them it was. What is he ] I do not kno^v what 
be is. 

240. Who, which, and what, when used as responsives, seem 
to relate to no word, either antecedent or subsequent : thus, in 

which, and what, when joined with ever or soever ? 232. How are which 
and what often used ? 233. In what double sense are what, whatever, and 
whatsoever used at the same time ? 234. What is observed of whether ? 

c. 235. Interrogatives and Responsives. — When are who, which, 
and what called Interrogatives ? 2.36. What is remarked of the ante- 
cedent of interrogatories? 237. What does who inquire for? Which? 
What? 238. When are these words called Responsives? 239. What 
correspondence must be observed between the question and the answer? 


the response, " I do not know loho wrote it," supplying an ante- 
cedent changes the meaning. " I do not know the person, who 
wrote it," means I am not acquainted with him, which is quite a 
different idea. 

241. Which and lohat, when used as interrogatives, or re- 
sponsives, or when joined w-ith ever and soever, apply to persons 
as well as things; as. Which of them did it] John. What is 
he ] A lawyer. 


242. The Adjective Pronouns are subdivided into 
FOUR classes ; viz. Possessive, Distributive, Demon- 
strative, and Indefinite. 


243. The Possessives indicate possession or property. 

244. The Possessives are my^ thy^ his^ her, its, our, 
your, their, onm. 

245. Own does not stand by itself, but is always connected 
with one of the other possessives. It makes the possession em- 
phatic, just as self does the person. 

246. Formerly mine and thine were used before a vowel in- 
stead of 7ny and thy ; as, " Blot out all jnine iniquities." 


247. The Distributives represent objects taken separately. 
248^ The Distributives are each, every, either, 


^40. What is remarked of the antecedent of the responsives ? 241. When 
do which and what apply to persons as well as things? 

a. How are the Adjective Pronouns subdivided? 

c. 243. What do the Possessives indicate ? 

a. 244. Which are the Possessives ? 

c. 245. What is remarked of own ? 246. Of mine and thine ? 247. How 
do tne Distributives represent objects ? 

cf. MS. iVhich are the Distributives? 


249. Either refers to two, each to two or more, every always 
to more than two. Either means one or the other, but not both. 
Each and every comprehend ally though taken singly. Neither 
means not either. 


250. The Demonstratives designate objects definitely. 

251. The Demonstratives are this and that, these 
and those. 

252. Yon, former, latter are sometimes called demonstratives, 
but improperly. 


253. The Indefinites designate objects indefinitely. 

254. The Indefinites are any, all such, whoky some^ 
both, one, none, other, another. 

255. One and other are declined regularly ; thus, 

f Nom. 



ing. ) Pos. 






( Nom. 



lur. < Pos. 






256. Another is merely the article an and other, and is used 
only in the singular. 

257. None (no one) is used in both numbers. It never stands 
before a noun, and is used only when the noun is omitted. 

c. 249. What is remarked of either ? each ? &c. 250. How do Demon- 
stratives designate objects ? 

a. 251. TV^ic/i are the Demonstratives? 

c. 252. What is remarked of yon, former and latter? 253. How do the 
Indefinites designate objects ? 

a. 254. Which are the Indefinites ? 255. How is one declined ? other ? 

c. 256. What is remarked of ajiother ? 257. Of none? 



258. A Verb is a part of speech used to assert or 
affirm ; as, the boy sleeps, 

259. This is true of no other part of speech, and may be considered the 
distinguishing characteristic of the verb. The general idea or thing, which 
in a verb, is expressed in the form of an affirmation, may be conceived of 
in various other forms, and so become successively different parts of 
speech. Thus, for instance, take the general idea of sleeping. If we 
think or speak of the name of this idea, it is a Noun, as, sleep. If the idea 
is connected with any subject as one of its accidents, qualities, or attributes, 
but without any affirmation, it is an Adjective, as, the sleepy boy. If the 
idea is affirmed or predicated of the subject of discourse, it is a verb, as the 
boy sleeps. The idea may be introduced as a modification of some other 
quality or attribute, and then it is an Adverb, as, the boy acts sleepily. In 
all these instances, the same general idea exists as a common substratum, 
or ground work. That which distinguishes one part of speech from 
another, is not that one expresses some substantive idea and another does 
not (which is not true) ; but, an idea, when conceived and spoken of as the 
subject of discourse, is a Noun ; when conceived and spoken of as an at- 
tribute or quality of som.e subject, is an Adjective; when affirmed or pre- 
dicated, is a Verb. The following from the Latin, is a good example of 
the same general idea being conceived of under different forms and becom- 
ing successively different parts of speech ; " Docere docilem facile est, ut 
docilitatis suae edat documentum, celeri apprehensione docirincB, fiatque vir . 
doctus, et sentiat docte.'" The distinction here insisted on is as old as Aris- 
totle, and should not be lost sight of. 

Classes of Verbs. 

260. Ve7'bs are divided info Transitive and Intransi- 
tive, Regular and Irregular^ Impersonal, Defective, and 

a. 258. What is a verb ? 

d. 259. What is remarked of this definition ? How may the general idea 
contained in the verb be conceived of? How is this illustrated in the 
idea of sleeping ? What, is it that really distinguishes one part of speech 
from another ? 

a. 260. How are verbs divided ? 



261. A Transitive Verb is one which requires an ob- 
jective case after it : as, James writes a letter. 

262. An Intransitive Verb is one which does not re- 
quire an objective case after it : as, John sleeps. 

263. There are two classes of verbs perfectly distinct from each other, 
viz : Those which do, and those which do not govern an objective case. 
The terms active and neuter, formerly used to express this distinction, are 
now generally abandoned. A strong objection to them was, that many 
verbs govern an objective case in which it is at least doubtful whether any 
action, in the ordinary sense of that term, takes place ; while, on the con- 
trary, a large proportion of the verbs called neuter, and which by the de- 
finition ought to express no action, do yet in fact express action in the 
highest degree, as to run, to walk, to swim, &c. Another and still stronger 
objection was that the terms active and neuter as applied to verbs, pro- 
duced confusion and doubt about the distinctions of Active and Passive, 
as applied to Voice. It needs no argument to ipTO\e thai I am struck is 
just as really a modification of to strike, as I have struck is ; and yet, un- 
der the old classification of active, passive, and neuter, the pupil was 
taught to consider these forms as two verbs belonging to different classes : 
I have struck, for instance, was called an active verb ; I am struck a pas- 
sive verb ; and I walk a neuter verb. Under the present arrangement, the 
terms Active afnd Passive do not express a distinction of verbs, but of 
Voice. The active voice of a verb is distinguished from its passive voice, 
just as one of its moods or tenses is distinguished from any other mood or 
tense. There would seem to be no more reason for dividing verbs into 
active and passive verbs, than for dividing them into present verbs, past 
verbs, indicative verbs, potential verbs, &c. 

264. It is indeed true that verbs may be divided into those which express 
action, and those which do not express action. But, if the line be drawn 
with accuracy, the number of the latter will be exceedingly small, includ- 
ing the verbs to be, to exist, and perhaps some few others ; and, besides, 
the distinction, when conceded, will be of no available use for any of the 

b. 261. What is a transitive verb ? 262. An intransitive ? 

d. 263. What is remarked of the terms active and neuter? What strong 
objection to them was there ? What objection arising out of the considera- 
tion of voice ? What do the terms active and passive express under the 
present arrangement ? What inconsistency is there in dividing verbs into 
active and passive? 264. Would the division into active and neuter, if 
conceded, be of any practical use? Why not? 265. What is remarked of 



practical purposes of grammar. Some verbs will be found governing an 
objective case in which it is difficult to perceive any decided action, while 
others expressing intense activity will be found without an objective case. 

265. The terms transitive and intransitive have been used, because in 
very many, perhaps a majority, of the verbs which take an objective case, 
some action may be conceived as passing from the agent to the object; as, 
James strikes the table. Here, the act of striking passes from the agent 
James, to the object, which is the table. There are many cases, however, 
in which such a transition cannot readily be traced ; as, he enjoys repose. 
Still, the terms seem the least objectionable that have yet been proposed, 
especially if limited by their definition to the classification really meant, 

TIVE CASE. In this sense, the distinction is one easily made, universally 
recognised, and of great practical importance, although the terms em- 
ployed to express it are not as entirely accurate as could be desired. 


266. A Regular Verb is one that forms its Past 
Tense and perfect participle by the addition of d or ed ; 
asy Present, love; Past, loved; Perfect Participle, loved. 

267. An Irregular verb is one that does not form its past tense 
and perfect participle by the addition of d or ed ; as, present, 
teach ; past, taught ; perfect participle, taught. 


Present. Past. 

Perf. Part. 

Abide abode 


Am was 


Arise arose 


Awake awoke, r. 


Bear, to bring forth, bare 


Bear, to carry bore 


Beat beat 

beaten, beat 

Beorin beoran 


Bend bent 


the terms transitive and intransitive ? What is the classification really 
meant ? 
a. 266. What is a regidar verb ? 267. An irregular verb ? 





Perf. Part. 


bereft, r. 

bereft, r. 





bid, bade 

bidden, bid 






bitten, bit 





























caught, R. 

caught, R. 



chidden, chid 




Cleave, to 

stick or 


Cleave, to 


clove or clefl 

cloven, cleft 






clad, R. 











crew, R. 





Dare, to venture 



Dare, r. to 




dealt, R. 

dealt, R. 


dug, R. 

dug, R. 














dwelt, R. 

dwelt, R. 


eat or ato 






Perf. Part. 






















Fly, as a bird 





forgotten, forgot 











gilt, R. 

gilt, R. 


girt, R. 

girt, R. 









graven, r. 








hung, R. 

hung, R. 









hewn, R. 



hidden, hid 














knit, R. 

knit, R. 



















♦ Gotten is nearly obsolete. Its compound forgotten is still in good use. 






Perf. Part. 




Lie, to lie doion 





laden, r. 












mown, R. 






put . 












rode, ridden* 


rung, rang 













sawn, R. 
























shaped, shapen 



shaven, r. 








shone, r. 

shone, r. 



















* Ridden is nearly obsolete. 





Perf. Part. 


sung, sang 
sunk, sank 














slit, R. 

slit or slitted 






sown, R. 


spilt, R. 

spilt, R. 


spit, spat 


spit, spitten* 




sprung, sprang 












strode or strid 




struck or stricken 




\ Strive^ 



Strow or strew 

strewed or strewed 

( strown, strowed, 
t strewed 

. Swear 




swet, R. 

swetj R. 

1 " Swell 


swollen. R. 


swum, swam 


Spitten is nearly obsolete. 




269. ^-In the preceding list some of the verbs will be found to 
be conjugated regularly, as well as irregularly ; and those which 
admit of the regular form are marked w^ith an r. There is a 
preference to be given to some of these^ which custom and judg- 
ment must determine. Those preterits and participles which 
are first mentioned in the list, seem to be the most eligible. The 
Compiler has not inserted such verbs as are irregular only in 
familiar writing or discourse, and which are improperly termi- 
nated by tj instead of ed : as, learnt, spelt, spilt. &c. These 
should be avoided in every sort of composition. It is, however, 
proper to observe, that some contractions of ed into t are unex- 
ceptionable : and others, the only established forms of expression : 
as crept, dwelt, gilt, &c. : and lost, felt, slept, &c. These 
allowable and necessary contractions must therefore be carefully 
distinguished by the learner, from those that are exceptionable. 
The words which are obsolete have also been omitted, that the 
learner might not be induced to mistake them for words in pre- 
sent use. Such are, wreathen, drunken, holpen, gotten, holden. 


Perf. Part. 













throve, r. 









waxen, r. 












wrought or worked 






bound en, &c. : and swang, wrang; slank. strawed, gat brake^ tare, 
ware, &c." — Murray. 


270. An Impersonal Verb is a verb in the third person singu- 
lar, with the pronoun if, used in an indefinite manner, without 
referring to any particular thing ; as, it hails, it sriows, &c. 

271. These are sometimes called Monopersonal verbs, that is, verbs of 
one person. 


272. A Defective Verb is one that lacks some of the Moods 
and Tenses ; as, quoth, must, ought, &c. 

273. Most of the Defective verbs are also Auxiliary. 


274. An Auxiliary Verb is one which helps in 
forming the Moods and Tenses of other verbs. 

275. The auxiliary verbs are be, do, have, will, 
shall, may^ can, must, 

276. Be, do, have, and sometimes will, are also used as princi- 
pal verbs ; as, they may he here, they do nothing, they have 
nothing, they will it should be so. As principal verbs, they have 
all the moods and tenses which other verbs have. 

277. Be, as an Auxiliary, is used in all its moods, tenses, num- 
bers, and persons ; as, I am loved, I was loved, I have been loved, 

278. Have, do, will, shall, may, can, as Auxiliaries, are used 
in only two forms, and must in only one form, viz : 

Present. Have, do, will, shall, may, can, must. 
Past. Had, did, w^ould, should, might, could. 

c. 270. What is an impersonal verb ? 

d. 271. What are they sometimes called ? 
c. 272. What is a defective verb ? 

h. 274. What is an auxiliary verb ? 
a. 275, Which are the auxiliaries? 

c. 276, Which of the auxiliaries are also used as principal verbs ? 277. To 
what extent is the verb to he used as an auxihary ? 278. In vv'hat tenses 



279. These forms taken by themselves may be considered as 
the Present and Past, but they do not always form the present 
and past when in combination with the other Auxiliaries or with 
the principal verb. 

280. Shall, may, can, and must are defective, having only the 
tenses given above, and are never used except as Auxiliaries. 


1st. Per. 2cl. Per. 



















3d. Per. 



























shouldst should 

mightst might 

couldst could 

2d. Per. 


may may 
can can 

must must 

1st. Per. 





















3d. Per. 

















282. Subjunctive form of the verb to be. 
^ If I be, if thou be, if he be. 

( if we be, if you be, if they be. 

If I were, if thou wert, if he were, 

if we were, if you were, if they were 

N. B. — In the third person singular of do and have, doth and hath occur 


in old books. 

are the other auxiliaries used? Repeat the present and past of the auxilia- 
ries? 279. What is remarked of the tense of these forms? 280. Which 
of the auxiliaries are defective ? 



283. It would be a mistake to suppose, as is sometimes done, that the 
Auxiliaries are mere inventions, introduced into the language for the pur- 
pose of making out the necessary forms. There is abundant evidence 
that the auxiliaries were originally all independent verbs, and that the verbs 
following the auxiliaries were in the infinitive mood, to being understood. 
The verb shall meant, originally, to he obliged, and was followed by an in- 
finitive. *' They shall (to) do it," meant " they are obliged to do it." The to waa 
omitted just as it now is after many other verbs ; as, '* they 7ieed not (to) do 
it, I saw him (to) do it," &c. In like manner, all the compound tenses may 
be analysed. This analysis, and the study of the proper force of the aux- 
iliaries by themselves, is important as affording the best clue to the true 
meaning and use of the various moods and tenses. 

284. It would be an equal mistake on the other hand, because these 
compound forms may be analysed and traced to original independent ele- 
ments in the language, to deny their present existence as compounds, and 
to assert, as some recent grammarians have done, that there are in English 
but two tenses, the present and the past. As in Chemistry, an alkali and 
an acid when combined, form a compound with properties not found m 
either of the ingredients, so in language, particular combinations of 
words acquire by usage, new meanings not possessed by the words taken 
singly. The phrase I shall be meant originally I am obliged to he, and the 
connexion between these two ideas may be very ingeniously and truly 
traced. But the phrase nov/ expresses simply and absolutely the idea of 
futurity, without any sort o^ obligation. The man who says "I shall he in 
New York to-morrow," conveys by the words shall be precisely what he 
would by the Latin ero. The former is just as much the future tense of 
the verb to he as the latter is. To parse shall as a verb in the present 
tense, and be in the infinitive, would be just as erroneous as to deny per- 
son to the Hebrew verb, because the forms of the persons may be analysed, 
and the personal pronouns clearly detected in the terminations, and sepa- 
rated, if needs be, from the rest of the verb. 

285. The same reasoning will apply to the proposed analysis of the 
Dther compound forms, do love, did love, have loved, have been, &c. The 
object aimed at is simplification. The writers in question, at first sight 

d. 283. What mistake is sometimes made in regard to the auxiliaries? 
What were they originally ? How is this illustrated in the case of shall ? 
What is remarked of the importance of this analysis of the compound 
tenses ? 

d. 284. What equal mistake is sometimes made ? How is this subject 
illustrated by Chemistry ? What was the original meaning of shall he ? 
What is its present meaning ? What illustration is drawn from the Hebrew ? 


seem to accomplish their end, for they apparently despatch the whole 
verb, moods, tenses, and all, in a single sweeping paragraph. But in the 
end, the learner finds he has quite as much to learn in detached and un- 
connected parcels, as he had before under a systematic and orderly ar- 
rangement. He has gained the simplicity of the monosyllabic Chinese in 
exchange for the complex forms and combinations of the Arabic or the 

Attributes of Verbs, 

286. Verhs have Voice, Mood, Tense, Number, and 

Certain parts of the verb are called Participles. 


287. Transitive Verhs have two voices ^ the Active, 
and the Passive ; as, I love, I am loved. 

2S8. The Active Voice requires the agent to be in the nomi- 
native case, and the object in the objective case ; as Henry 
learns his lesson. 

289. The Passive Voice^ on the contrary, requires the agent 
to be in the objective case governed by a preposition, and the 
object to be in the nominative case ; as, the lesson is learned by 

290. The action is the same in both cases, only the agent and 
the object have changed places. 

291. The Passive Voice of any verb is formed by prefixing 
to its Perfect Participle the various moods, tenses, numbers, 
and persons of the verb to be; as, I am loved. I was loved, to be 

d. 285. What object is aimed at by those who propose to aboHsh the 
compound tenses ? What does the learner find in the end ? 

a. 286. What attributes have verbs ? 287. How many voices have irau' 
sitive verbs ? 

c. 288. What does the active voice require ? 289. The passive ? 290 
How do the two compare ? 291. How is the passive voice of any verb 
formed ? 


292. Many verbs are used both transitively and intransitively ; 
as, He reads well, he reads a book. 

293. Intransitive verbs are not used in the Passive Voice: 
thus, we may say to laugh, but not to be laughed. 

294. When Intransitive verbs are followed by certain preposi- 
tions, the verb and preposition sometimes seem to form a kind of 
compound verb, which is transitive, and admits of a passive voice : 
thus, we say to laugh at a person^ and to he laughed at by him. 

295. Intransitive verbs sometimes take after them an objective 
of kindred signification. In that case they admit of a Passive 
Voice ; as, I run a race, a race is run. 

296. Transitive verbs in English, are sometimes used without 
an objective case, in a sense between the Active and Passive 
voices ; as, I taste the apple ; the apple is tasted by me ; the 
apple tastes sweet. In like manner we say, the field ploughs 
well, &c. This idiom is not totally unlike the Greek Middle 


297. Verbs have five Moods ;the Indicative, the Sub- 
junctive, the Potential, the Imperative, and the In- 

298. It is the office of the verb to assert or affirm something. If this 
assertion or affirmation is limited to some subject, the verb is said to be 
finite. The assertion may be connected with the subject in four different 
ways, giving rise to the four finite modes or moods. 1. The assertion may 
be expressed directly and without hmitation, and then it is in the Indicative 
mood; as, the boy sleeps. 2. It may be made subject to some limitation, and 
then it is in the Subjunctive mood ; as, if the boy sleeps. 3. It may be ex- 
pressed as a possibility, &c. and then it is in the Potential mood ; as, the 
boy may sleep. 4. It may be expressed as a command, &c., and then it is 

c. 292. How are many verbs used ? 293. What is remarked of intran- 
sitive verbs in regard to voice 1 294, When are intransitive verbs capable 
of being used in the passive ? 295. What other case is mentioned ? — 
296. What remarkable usage of English transitive verbs is noticed ? 

a. 297. How many moods have verbs ? 

d. 298. When is a verb said to be finite ? In how many ways may the 
assertion be connected with the subject? Explain the nature and relations 
of tl^e different moods. 



in the Imperative mood ; as : sleep, boy. Sometimes the assertion is not 
limited to any particular subject, and then it is said to be in the Infinitive 
mood ; as, to sleep. Certain forms of the verb contain the assertion in a 
kind of suspense, or as a supposition. These are called Participles ; as, 
sleeping, having slept. 

299. The Indicative Mood affirms directly and with- 
out limitation ; as^ he loves, 

300. It is also used in asking direct questions; as, lovest thou? 

301. The Subjunctive Mood affirms a thing subject to 
some condition or limitation ; as, if he study , he will 

302. The subjunctive is preceded by a conjunction, ify although, urdesSy 
except, lest, &c., and is attended by another verb in some finite mood. 

303. The Potential Mood expresses possibility, Uber- 
ty, power, will or obligation ; as, I may write, 

304. It is also used in asking questions of corresponding import ; as, 
may I write ? 

305. The Imperative Mood commands, exhorts, en- 
treats, or permits ; as, write your letter. 

306. The Infinitive Mood does not limit the affirma- 
tion to any particular subject ; as, to write, 

307. It is generally preceded by the word to. 

308. The Participles are certain forms of the 
verb which partake of the nature both of the Verb and 
the Adjective. 

309. The Participles are three^ the Present, the 
Perfect, and the Compound Perfect ; aSy loving y loved, 
having loved, 

h. 299. How do you define the Indicative mood ? 301. The Subjunc- 
tive? 303. The Potential? 305. The Imperative ? 306. The Infinitive ? 
308. The Participles ? 

d, 300. How else is the Indicative used ? 302. With what is the Sub. 
junctive preceded and attended ? 304. Plow else is the Potential used ? 
307. By what is the Infinitive generally preceded ? 


310. The Participles contain an affirmation in the form of a supposition, 
or in a kind of incomplete or suspended state. Thus, " the man having 
finished his letter, will carry it to the post office." Here the participle 
having finished contains precisely the same meaning that would have been 
conveyed by the subjunctive mood, ''when he has finished ^ It is the af- 
firmation of the verb subject to some limitation, or in a state of suspense. 
The participles also express distinctions of time, which is another of the 
peculiar properties of the verb. Hence, they are, by almost common 
consent, considered parts of the verb. They partake of the nature of the 
adjective, inasmuch as they are joined to a noun in construction, in the 
same manner as an adjective. 

311. Many mistakes have arisen from supposing the English participles 
to correspond, more nearly than they in truth do, to the Latin participles. 
In Latin, excepting in deponent verbs, the present participle is always 
active, the perfect always passive. Hence some grammarians assume the 
same to be always true in English. They take for granted that the parti- 
ciple in ing is essentially and necessarily active, and that the perfect is 
essentially and necessarily passive. Neither of these is true. The per- 
fect participle is extensively used in making the compound forms of the 
active voice. When we analyse one of these compound expressions, as 
for instance he had concealed, we call had the auxiliary, and concealed the 
perfect participle. The force of the participle in this combination is dif- 
ferent from what it is when found in the passive voice, or when standing 
alone. Thus, in the sentence '' he had a dagger concealed under his cloak," 
concealed is passive, signifying being concealed ; but in the former com- 
bination, it goes to make up a form, the force of which is active. This is 
obvious the moment we attempt to translate the two expressions into any 
language where the difference is distinguished by a difference of termina- 
tion. Thus, in Latin, " he had concealed the dagger" would be " pugionem 
ahdiderat ;'' but " he had the dagger concealed" would be ''pugionem ah- 
ditum habehatr The author, therefore, agrees with Mr, Murray in mak- 
ing a perfect active participle as well as a perfect passive. It should be 
remarked, however, that this participle in the active is only found in com- 
bination. Whenever it stands alone to be parsed as a Participle, it is 

a. 309. How many participles are there ? What are they ? 

d. 310. In what manner do participles contain the affirmation of the 
verb? How is this illustrated? What other property of the verb have 
they ? What property of adjectives have they ? 

d. 311. What has been a common source of mistake in regard to the 
English participles? What has been taken for granted in regard to the 
participle in i7?g- and the perfect participle? How are these illustrated? 
When does this difference become obvious ? What conclusion is drawn 
in regard to perfect participles ? 


312. A usage similar in some respect prevails in regard to the Present 
Participle in ing. When it stands by itself, as a Participle, it is invariably 
active. But in combination, in making what is called the progressive form 
of the verb, it is not invariably active : as, in the phrase, " the house is 
building." I know the correctness of this mode of expression has lately 
been very much assailed, and an attempt, to some extent successful, has 
been made to introduce the form " is being built.'* But, in the first place, 
the old mode of expression is a well established usage of the language, 
being found in our best and most correct writers. Secondly, is being 
built does not convey the idea intended, namely that of progressive action. 
Is being, taken together, means simply is, just as is writing means writes; 
therefore, is being built means is built, a perfect and not a progressive ac- 
tion. Or, if beijig built be taken together, they signify an action complete, 
and the phrase means, as before, the house is (exists) being built. Thirdly, 
the same reasoning which has led to the expression " is being builf* would 
lead equally to ** was being built," " has been being built," " had been be- 
ing built," " shall be being built," " shall have been being built," *' might 
have been being built," &c. &c. Fourthly, the same mode of proceeding, 
which requires us in this case to deny any force to usage^ and to consider 
the termination ing ahvays active, because it is generally so, would lead, 
if carried out, to still wider consequences. For instance, when we say 
" the house is building," the advocates of the new theory ask, '* building 
what?'' We might ask in turn, when you say "the field ploughs well," 
ploughs what? "Wheat sells well," sells whatl If usage allows us to 
say " wheat sells at a dollar" in a sense that is not active, why may it not 
also allow us to say " wheat is selling at a dollar" in a sense that is not 
active ? 


313. Tense is the distinction of time, 

314. There are six tenses, the Present, the Past, the 
Perfect, the Pluperfect, the First Future, and the 
Second Future. 

d, 312. What similar usage is observed in regard to the Participle in 
ing ? What substitute for this mode of expression has lately been pro- 
posed ? What has usage decided in regard to the matter ? Does the new 
mode of expression really convey the idea, of progressive action? Why 
not ? If the same mode of expression were carried out, what are some 
of the absurdities into which it would lead ? How may the argument of 
those who oppose the old mode be retorted ? 

a. 313. What is Tense ? 314. IIow many tenses are there ? What are they . 


315. " To take the Tenses^ as they are commonly received, 
and endeavour to ascertain their nature and their differences, is 
a much more useful exercise, as well as more proper for a work 
of this kindj than to raise, as might easily be raised, new theories 
on the subject." — Eiicyclopcedia Brittanica. 

316. Much has been written both against the division of the tenses com- 
monly received, and against the names assigned to them. The tenses 
which have occasioned the principal difficulty are the Perfect and the Past, 
or, as it is commonly called, the Imperfect. The other four correspond to 
tenses having the same names in most other languages. But the perfect, 
and the so called imperfect, labour under the difficulty of being named 
from two Latin tenses to which they do not accurately correspond. The 
Latin perfect expresses the ideas both of the perfect and the imperfect in 
English. Thus scripsi means both I have written, and I wrote. Both of 
these ideas 2,x% perfect, that is, they express something done and finished ; 
and the term imperfect or unfinished diS applied to one of them is strikingly- 
incorrect. Thus, " I wrote my letter yesterday," " God created the world,'* 
" Moses wrote the Pentateuch ;" all these evidently express diCiions finished, 
or perfect. The Latin imperfect, on the contrary, expresses an idea strictly- 
corresponding to its name. But, although this idea is not found in the re- 
gular form of the English tense "I wrote," it is expressed exactly by what 
is called the progressive form of that tense, viz., *' I was v/riting." On this 
account some still retain the name as describing accurately one of the forms 
of the tense, though not the leading or principal form. The objection to 
such a course is that the term imperfect describes equally well the pro- 
gressive form of every tense. Thus, I am writing, I have been writing, I 
shall he writing, &c., all express action incomplete or imperfect. 

317. By laying aside the term imperfect, the principal objection to the 
term perfect is obviated. The term is not indeed the most accurate that 
could be desired, but it is no longer rendered incomprehensible by being 
incongruously contrasted with the imperfect. We no longer have two 
tenses, both expressing action equally finished and complete, and yet one 
called the perfect, and the other the imperfect. 

318. AVhile, therefore, the term perfect is retained for the reason as- 
signed, and in conformity with the immemorial usage of all languages, it 

c. 315. What is the best mode of treating the tenses in a work of this 
kind ? What other less profitable mode of treating them is there? 

d. 316. Which of the tenses have occasioned most difficulty ? What is 
remarked of the Latin perfect? Of the Latin imperfect? Of the corres- 
ponding English tense ? Why do some still retain this term ? What is 
the objection to so doing ? 

d, 317. What is remarked in regard to the perfect ? 318. If the term 



is deemed necessary to ascertain and limit its meaning with as much pre- 
cision as may be. 

319. The Perfect Tense then includes three distinct ideas. 1. The ac- 
tion is finished, hence the name, perfect. 2. It was commenced in past 
time. 3. It is connected in some way with the present. Thus, in the 
phrase "I have written a letter this week," the letter is finished, it was 
commenced at some time previous to the present moment and consequent- 
ly in past time ; and the act was done during a period of which the pre- 
sent moment is a part. 

320. The perfect and the past (at least the ordinary form of it,) agree in 
two things. They both express what is past, they both express what is 
finished. But they differ in this. The period of time in w^hich the act is 
done, extends in the perfect tc the present moment, in the imperfect it 
does not. It excludes all ideas of the present instant. The phrases"! 
wrote a letter yesterday," " I have written a letter this week," may both 
refer to the same transaction. But the mode of expression in the former 
case describes the action as occurring in a period of time which was com- 
plete before the present time ; while in the latter, some portion of the 
period assigned still remains. 

321. Hence the perfect is often used to express what continues to the 
present time in its consequences, although we know that the period of the 
action was complete long ago ; as, *' Cicero has written orations." We 
cannot in like manner say, " Cicero has written poems." His poems are 
lost, his orations still exist. Cicero the yoet perished long since, but Cicero 
the orator is still extant, and may be conceived as existing and acting in a 
period extending down to the present moment. For the same reason we 
cannot say •* the Druids have claimed great powers," for they were long 
since extinct, and they have left no writing or other instrument in which 
such claim can be conceived as now set forth. We ma}-, however, 
say, "Mohammed has claimed great powers," for the claim still exists in 
the Koran. An author is universally considered as living ^vhile his writings 
live. Hence he m.ay be considered as having done a thirg in a period of 
time not yet expired. 

322. The Present Tense denotes present time ; -as, I 

323. The present often expresses what is habitual, or universal; as, the 
sun gives light by day, the moon by night; charity thinketh no evil. 

Perfect is retained what is necessary ? 319. What three ideas does this 
tense include ? 320. In what do the Perfect and the Past agree ? In what 
dg they differ ? 321. How is it that we say *' Cicero lias written orations'^ 
but not *' Cicero has written poems V 

h. 322. What does the Present tense denote ? 

d. 323. What other usage of the Present is noticed ? 324. When does 
ihc Present express what is yet future ? 


324. When preceded by certain conjunctions, when, alter, as soon as, 
&c., the present tense sometimes conveys the idea of that which is yet 
future ; as, when the mail arrives, I shall have a letter. 

325. The Past Tense denotes simply past time ; as, I 

326. It is sometimes called the Imperfect Tense. 

327. The Perfect Tense denotes what is past and 
finished, but connected also with the present time ; as, I 
have written, 

328. When preceded by certain conjunctions, when, after, as soon as, 
&c., the perfect, like the present, often denotes something yet to come; 
as, when I have finished my letter, I will attend to your request. 

329. The Pluperfect Tense denotes time w^hich is not 
simply past, but prior to some other time which is itself 
past ; as, I hoA written the letter, before it was called 

330. The First Future Tense denotes simply future 
time ; as, I will write, 

331. The Second Future Tense denotes time which is 
not simply future, but prior to some other time which is 
itself future ; as, I shall have written the letter before it 
will be called for. 

The Progressive and Emphatic Forms of the Tenses. 

332. By using the present participle of any verb with the 
various parts of the verb to he, a distinct form arises for each 
tensa This is called sometimes the Progressive form, because 
it represents the action as still in progress ; sometimes the 7m- 

5. 325. What does the Past tense denote ? 
d. 326. What other name is there for this tense? 
h. 327, What does the Perfect tense denote ? 
d. 328. When does the Perfect express what is yet future ? 
h. 329. What does the Pluperfect tense express ? 330. The First Fu- 
ture ? 331. The Second Future ? 
c. 332. How is the progressive form of the tenses made? What other 


Perfect form, because action in progress is still incomplete; 
sometimes the Definite formj because it marks the time of the 
action in every case with perfect definiteness and precision. Thus 
we have, I am writing, I was writing, I have been writing, I 
had been writing, I shall be writing, I shall have been writing. 

333. In addition to the ordinary and the progressive forms 
which are common to all the tenses, the Present and the Past 
have a third form, peculiar to themselves, made by prefixing the 
auxiliaries do and did; as, I do write, I did write. It is called 
the Emphatic form, because it expresses the alSirmation of the 
verb with emphasis. 

334. The Progressive and the Emphatic forms give in each |; 
case a different shade of meaning to the verb, but do not change 
the time of the action as set forth in the foregoing definitions. 

The Tenses of the Subjunctive and the Potential Moods. 

335. The Tenses in these moods are used with less precision than in the 
indicative. This arises in part from the meaning of some of the auxiliaries 
and conjunctions, which modify the time expressed in the affirmation ; and < 
in part from mere usage, of which no other account can be given, than 
that the particular form does in fact convey a certain idea of time. Still, in 
a majority of cases, the tenses of the subjunctive and the potential express 
the same distinctions of time as the tenses of the same name in the indica- 
tive. It has not been thought expedient, therefore, to change the names 
of the tenses or to invent new names, to suit every change of meaning pro- 
duced by custom or particular combination of words, but to name the tense 
in every case by its form. Thus, in the sentence, "If I had the money, I 
would pay you," had undoubtedly expresses present time, nolpast: still, it 
has the form of the past, and should be called accordingly. 

336. In like manner the auxiliaries might, could, would, and should, are 
often used as expressing the primary meaning of these words, that is sim- 
ply possibility, liberty, will, and obligation, without distinguishing the 

names have been given to this form ? 333. What other form is founded in 
the present and the past? 334. How do these forms affect the meaning 
of the tenses ? 

d. 335. What is remarked of the tenses in the subjunctive and the po- 
tential moods ? How has it been deemed expedient to have the tenses in 
these moods ? 336. What is remarked of the time expressed by the aux- 
iliaries might, could, would, and should ? 337. How may any verb in the 


time, or, rather, leaving the time to be determined by the other words in 
the sentence. They may therefore be used equally, where the meaning is 
present, past, or future. ThuvS, *' he could do it now, if he would" pre- 
sent ; " he could not do it yesterday, because his father would not let him," 
past ; ** he could do it to-morrow, if his father would let him," future. 

337. Any verb in the past tense may be rendered subjunctive in mean- 
ing by putting the nominative after the verb, or between the verb and aux- 
iliary. This is very common with the verbs to Jiave, to be, and to do. — 
Thus, " did T know" means *' if I knew ;" " had I a book" means ** if I 
had a book," &c. When this construction occurs with the verb to be, the 
verb assumes the subjunctive /orTTz as well as meaning ; thus, were I, wert 
thou, were he, &c., and not, was I, wast thou, &c. 

338. There is a peculiar usage of to ?iave and to be that needs to be 
noted. Were is often used in the subjunctive form without a conjunc- 
tion, and with a potential meaning, or v/ith the sense of would be ; thus, 
" I were an idiot, thus to speak," that is, "I would be an idiot, &c." In 
like manner, had is used in the sense of would have; thus, " it had been 
good for that man if he had never been born," that is, " it would have been 
good, &c." 

339. There is another usage of had still more remarkable, and so far as 
I know, incapable of explanation by anything analogous in the language. 
It is where had bears the meaning simply of would; thus, "I had rather 
not do it," ** I had as lief not be, as live to be, &e." The peculiarity in the 
previous paragraphs had reference to the meaning. Here it is a peculiarity 
G^ form as well as meaning, analogy requiring had been, had done, &c., not 
hxid be, had do. 


340. Verbs have two numbers, singular and plural ; 
a?id three persons, first, second, and third. 


341. The conjugation of a verb is the regular arrangement of 
its voices, moods, tenses, numbers and persons. 

past tense be rendered subjunctive without prefixing a conjunction ? 338. 
In what sense is were often used in the subjunctive form? What similar 
usage prevails in regard to had ? 339. What still more remarkable use of 
had is noticed ? 

a. 340. How many numbers and persons have verbs ? 

c. 341. What is the conjugation of a verb ? 342. In what other way 




342. Sometimes a verb is said to be conjugated when its three 
principal parts are given ; thus, present, love ; past, loved ; per- 
fect participle, loved. 

343. It has been customary to conjugate not only the verb to 
love^ but also the verbs to be and to have. A separate conjuga- 
tion of the two latter is deemed unnecessary, as everything pe- 
culiar in those verbs has already been given in the conjugation 
of the auxiliaries on a previous page. 



Present Tense. 



1. I love. 

1. We love. 

2. Thou lovest. 

2. You love. 

3. He loves. 

3. They love. 

Past Tense. 



1. I loved. 

1. We loved. 

2. Thou lovedst. 

2. You loved. 

3. He loved. 

3. They loved. 

Perfect Tense. 



1. I have loved. 

1. We have loved. 

2. Thou hast loved. 

2. You have loved. 

3. He has loved. 

3. They have loved. 





1. I had loved. 

1. We had loved. 

2. Thou hadst loved. 

2. You had loved. 

3. He had loved. 

3. They had loved. 

may a verb be conjugated? 343. What is the only verb conjugated in 
this book ? Why are not to he and to have also conjugated ? 



First Future Tense. 


1. I will love. 

2. Thou wilt love. 

3. He will love. 


1. We will love. 

2. You will love. 

3. They will love. 

Second Future Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I will have loved. 1. We will have loved. 

2. Thou wilt have loved. 2. You will have loved. 

3. He will have loved. 3. They will have loved. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. {Regular form.) 

Present Tense. 


1. If w^e love. 

2. If you love. 

3. If they love. 


1. If I love. 

2. If thou lovest. 

3. If he loves. 

Singular . 

1. If I loved. 

2. If thou lovedst. 

3. If he loved. 


1. If I have loved. 

2. If thou hast loved 

3. If he has loved. 

Past Tense. 


1. If we loved. 

2. If you loved. 

3. If they loved. 
Perfect Tense. 


1. If we have loved. 

2. If you have loved. 

3. If they have loved. 

Pluperfect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. If I had loved. 1. If we had loved. 

2. If thou hadst loved. 2. If you had loved. 

3. If he had loved. 3. If they had loved. 

First Future Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. If I will love. 1. If we will love. 

2. If thou wilt love. 2. If you will love. 

3. If he will love. 3. If they will love. 


Second Future Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. If I will have loved. 1. If we will have loved. 

2. If thou wilt have loved. 2. If j^ou will have loved. 

3. If he will have loved. 3. If they will have loved. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. {Suhjunctive fovm.) 

Present Tense, 
Singular. Plural. 

1. If I love. 1. If we love. 

2. If thou love. 2. If you love. 

3. If he love. 3. If they love. 


Present Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I may love. 1. We may love. 

2. Thou mayst love. 2. You may love. 

3. He may love. 3. They may love. 

Past Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I might love. I. We might love. 

2. Thou mightst love. 2. You might love. 

3. He might love. 8. They might love. 

Perfect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I may have loved. 1. We may have loved. 

2. Thou mayst have loved. 2. You may have loved. 
8. He may have loved. 3. They may have loved. 

Pluperfect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I might have loved. 1. We might have loved. 

2. Thou mightst have loved. 2. You might have loved. 
8. He might have loved. 3. They might have loved. 


Singular. Plural. 

Love, or love thou. Love, or love you. 




Present. To love. Perfect To have loved. 


Present. Loving. Perfect. Loved. 

Compound Perfect. Having loved. 



1. I am loved. 

2. Thou art loved. 

3. He is loved. 


1. I was loved. 

2. Thou wast loved. 

3. He was loved. 


Present Tense, 


1. We are loved. 

2. You are loved. 

3. They are loved. 

Past Tense. 


1. We were loved. 

2. You were loved. 

3. They were loved. 

Perfect Tense, 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I have been loved. 1. We have been loved. 

2. Thou hast been loved. 2. You have been loved. 

3. He has been loved. 3. They have been loved. 

^ Pluperfect Terise. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. I had been loved. 1. We had been loved. 

2. Thou hadst been loved. 2. You had been loved. 
S. He had been loved. 3. They had been loved. 

First Future Tense, 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I will be loved. 1. We will be loved. 

2. Thou wilt be loved. 2. You will be loved. 

3. He will be loved. 3. They will be loved. 


Second Future Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I will have been loved. 1. We will have been loved. 

2. Thou wilt have been loved. 2. You will have been loved, 

3. He will have been loved. 3. They will have been loved. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. {Regular form.) 

Present Tense, 

Singular. Plural. 

1. Ifl am loved. 1. If we are loved. 

2. If thou art loved. 2. If you are loved. 

3. If he is loved. 3. If they are loved. 

Past Tense, 
Singular. Plural. 

1. Ifl was loved. 1. If we were loved. 

2. If thou wast loved. 2. If you w^ere loved. 

3. If he was loved. 3. If they were loved. 

Perfect Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. Ifl have been loved. 1. If we have been loved. 

2. If thou hast been loved. 2. If you have been loved. 

3. If he has been loved. 3. If they have been loved. 

Pluperfect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. Ifl had been loved. 1. If we had been loved. 

2. If thou hadstbeen loved. 2. If you had been loved. 

3. If he had been loved. 3. If they had been loved. 

First Future Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. If I will be loved. 1. If we will be loved. 

2. If thou wilt be loved. 2. If you will be loved. 

3. If he will be loved. 3. If they will be loved. 

Second Future Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. Ifl will have been loved. 1. If we will have been loved. 

2. If thou wilt have been loved. 2. If you will have been loved. 

3. If he will have been loved. 3. If they will have been loved. 


SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. (Subjunctive form.) 

Present Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. Ifl be loved. 1. If we be loved. 

2. If thou be loved. 2. If you be loved. 

3. If he be loved. 3. If they be loved. 

Past Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. If I w^ere loved. 1. If we were loved. 

2. If thou wert loved. 2. If you were loved. 

3. If he were loved. 3. If they w^ere loved. 


Present Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I may be loved. 1. We may be loved. 

2. Thou mayst be loved. 2. You may be loved. 

3. He may be loved. 3. They may be loved. 

Past Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I might be loved. 1. We might be loved. 

2. Thou mightst be loved. 2. You might be loved. 

3. He might be loved. 3. They might be loved. 

Perfoct Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I may have been loved. 1. We may have been loved. 

2. Thou mayst have been loved. 2. You may have been loved. 

3. He may have been loved. 3. They may have been loved. 

Pluperfoct Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I might have been loved. 1. We might have been loved. 

2. Thou mightst have been loved. 2. You might have been loved. 

3. He might have been loved. 3. They might have been loved. 


Singular. Plural. 

2. Be loved; or be thou loved. 2. Beloved, or be you loved. 



Present, To be loved. Perfect. To have been loved. 


Present. Being loved. Perfect, Loved. 

Compound Perfect. Having been loved. 

Remarks on the Conjugation. 

344. In conjugating the verb it is not deemed necessary in 
every mood and tense to repeat all the variations which the verb has 
in that mood or tense. Such a course only renders the conjuga- 
tion cumbersome. The imperative, for instance, in full, would 
run thus : love, love thou, do love, do thou love, be loving, be thou 
loving. Besides, by confusing the mind of the learner with a 
multiplicity of formSj it distracts his attention from the points 
that are really essential. The variations that have been omitted 
on this account are noted in the following observations. 

345. In the third person singular he only is prefixed, instead 
of he, she, it, man^ &c. Also loveth and are omitted, as 
variations of loves and has. Only ivill is given in the future, the 
difference between it and shall being explained in the Syntax. 

346. The progressive and emphatic forms of the tenses (see 
332) are omitted. The former of these is limited to the present 
and past of the indicative, the latter extends through the whole 
active voice. It is formed by prefixing the verb to be through 
all its moods and tenses to the present participle ; thus, 


Present, I am loving. 
Past, I was loving. 
Perfect^ I have been loving. 
Pluperfect, I had been loving. 

1. Future, I will be loving. 

2. Future^ I will have been loving. 

Note. — In this manner go through the other moods and tenses. ! 


847. In the Potential Mood only one of the auxiliaries is given 
in each tense. The full form is as follows: 

Present, may, can, or must love. 

Past, might, could, would, or should love. 

Perfect, may, can, or must have loved. 

Pluperfect, might, could, would, or should have loved. 

348. The Subjunctive Mood has two forms, entirely distinct. 
The first, which may be called for convenience the regular form, 
is merely the Indicative with some conjunction prefixed expres- 
sing doubt or contingency. This form extends through all the 
six tenses. The propriety of considering this form as a distinct 
mood has been very much questioned. Writers on Englisli 
grammar are divided on the subject and it may be fairly consi- 
dered an open question. Both forms, therefore, are presented, 
for the convenience of those teachers who prefer to teach both, 
and at the same time the forms are so separated that those who 
choose, can omit the regular form, and require the pupil merely 
to commit the other. 

349. The Subjunctive form of this mood is limited in the 
active to the present tense, and in the passive to the present and 
past tenses. It is found also of course in the present and past 
tenses of the verb to be. Some few writers have contended for 
the use of this form in the perfect. But the great weight of 
authority is against it. 

350. In conjugating the Subjunctive, only one conjunction is 
used ; namely, if There are several other conjunctions, (see 
302) which may be used for the same purpose. This mood is 
also^ometimes formed without any conjunction, by putting the 
nominative after the verb, or between the auxiliary and the verb. 

c. 344. What has been deemed unnecessary in conjugating the verb? 
345. What is omitted in the third person singular ? in the future ? 346. 
What forms of the tenses are entirely omitted ? What are the emphatic 
forms 1 The progressive forms ? 347. What is the full form of the tenses 
in the potential mood ? 348. What two forms of the subjunctive are 
there ? In regard to which of these has any question been raised ? Why 
are both presented ? 349. How is the subjunctive form of this mood 
limited? 350. What is observed of the conjunctions used in conjugating 


(See 337.) This remark applies equally to the regular form and 
the subjunctive form. 

351. Mr. Murray calls the latter form the conjunctive^ and 
remarks in regard to it as follows. " That tense which is deno- 
minated the present of the subjunctive, may be considered as 
having two forms of the principal verb: first, that which simply 
denotes contingency ; as, * if he desires it, I will perform the 
operation,' that is, ' if he now desires it :' secondly, that which 
denotes both contingency and futurity ; as. * if he desire it, I will 
perform the operation,' that is, ' if he should hereafter desire it.' 
In the present tense of the auxiliary to be, there are likewise 
two forms in the subjunctive ; namely, ^ If I 6e,' and ' If I am.'* 
The imperfect tense of the verb to be, has likewise, according to 
the practice of good writers, two variations, namely, 'if he were 
present,' ' if he teas present.' " The remaining tenses of the 
subjunctive are according to him the same in form as the corre- 
sponding tenses of the indicative. 

352. The differences of meaning expressed by the various 
forms of the moods and tenses will be considered again under the 
head of Syntax. 


353. Jin Adverb is a word used to qualify a Verb, 
Adjective, or other Adverb ; as, he writes rapidly. 

3.54. Adverbs are not necessary parts of speech, as their meaning can 
always be expressed by other parts of speech. They generally express in 
one word what would otherwise require several. Here^ for instance, means 
*'in this place," now, " at this time," &c. 

355. Some of the adverbs appear to be formed by the combination of 
two or more words, which have gradually coalesced into one. Thus, 
bravely is probably an abbreviation of brave-ZiTce, wisely of v/ise-Z?A-e, hap- 
jnly of happy-Zi^e, &c. Others again are composed of nouns, and the 

the subjunctive ? 351. What is the substance of Mr. Murray's remarks in 
regard to the subjunctive ? 352. To what part of Grammar does it pro- 
perly belong to discuss the varieties and meaning of the moods and tenses. 

a. 353. What is an adverb ? 

d. 354. Why is an adverb not considered a necessary part of speech ? 
355. What is remarked of the formation of adverbs ? 



letter a used for at, an, &c. ; as, aside, ahead, aboard, ashore, aground, 
afloat. In others the composition is still more apparent ; as, hereof, there- 
of, hereby, &c. 

856. Many Adverbs are compared ; as, soon, sooner, soonest. 
Those ending in ly generally prefix more and most; as, happily, 
more happily, most happily. 

357. Some Adverbs are compared irregularly ; as, well, better, 
best; ill. worse, worst, &c. 

358. Sometimes several words are taken together and called 
an adverbial phrase ; as, at length, in vain, &c. These ex- 
pressions are elliptical, and the ellipsis can almost ahvays be 
supplied. Whenever this can be done, the words should be 
parsed separately. 

359. Some Adverbs perform at the same time the office of ad- 
verbs and of conjunctions : as, ^' they will come when they are 
ready." Here when both declares the time of the action, and so 
is an adverb, and also connects the two verbs, and so is a con- 
junction. These are called by some grammarians conjunctive 
adverbs ; by others, adverbial conjunctions. The most common 
of them are when, where, whither, whenever, ivherever, then, &lc, 

360. The Adverb there is often used as a mere expletive, ap- 
parently without any signification of its own, as in this sentence ; 
*' There was a man sent from God, whose name was John." 

361. Adverbs are divided into ten classes, according to their 
signification. The most important of these are those which 

1. Manner; as, well, ill, swiftly, smoothly, tiuly, with a 
great many others formed from adjectives by adding the termina- 
tion ly.^ This is by far the most numerous class of adverbs. 

2. Place; as, here, there, where, hither, thither, whither, 
hence, thence, whence, somevv^here, nowhere, &c. 

3. Time ; as, now, then, when, ever, never, soon, often, seldom, 
yesterday, to-day, to-morrow, lately, &c. 

c. 356. What is remarked of the comj^amo??. of adverbs ? 357. What 
irregular comparisons are given ? 358. What is remarked of adverbial 
phrases? 359. What examples are given of vt'ords used both as adverbs 
and conjunctions ? 360. How is there sometimes used ? 361. Into how 


4. Quantity ; as. much, little, sufficiently, enough, &c. 

5. Direction; as, downward, upward, forward, backward, 
homeward, heavenward, hitherward, thitherward. &c. 

6. Number, Order, &c. (including all those formed from the 
Numeral Adjectives) , as, first, secondly, thirdly, &.c. ; once, 
twice, &c. ; thrice, singly, doubly, triply, &c. 

7. x\ffirmation and Negation ; as. yes. no, verily, indeed, 
nay^ nowise, doubtless, &c. 

8. Interrogation ; as, how, why, when, where, whither, 
whence, &c. 

9. Comparison; as, more, most, less, least, well, better, best, 
very, exceedingly, nearly, almost, &c. 

10. Uncertainty ; as, perchance, perhaps, peradventure. 
362. The above is not intended as a complete list of Adverbs, 

nor even a complete classification of them. It will be found ser- 
viceable, however, for the learner in this way. When in doubt 
about the true character of a word, whether to call it an Adverb 
or not, the doubt is often immediately resolved by attempting to 
refer the word to one of these classes. Does the word express 
;place 7 Does it signify time ? &c. 


363. A Conjunction is a word used to connect words 
and sentences ; as, John and James study. 

364. It is a* mistake to suppose that the conjunctions and prepositions \ 
serve merely to connect the other parts of a sentence without any signifi- 
cancy of their own. These words were all no doubt originally other parts ^ 
of speech, viz. : verbs, nouns, and adjectives. Most of them may be dis- 
tinctly traced, and the meaning of the original recognised in the modern ' 
abbreviations. Thus, if is the imperative of the Saxon gifaiiy to give, i 
*' If it is fair to-morrow, I will go out," means "give (grant) it to be fair 'i 

many classes are' adverbs divided ? Repeat the names of these classes 
with two or three examples of each. 362. How may this classification be 
serviceable ? 

a. 363. What is a conjunction? 

d. 364. What mistake has been made by some writers in regard to the 
significaiion of conjunctions and prepositions? What is the original 


to-morrow," &c. Still, as the original words from which the conjunctions 
and prepositions are derived are mostly obsolete, these words are to be 
now regarded in reference to their present use, and not their original cha- 
racter. Thus, to require a child to parse if as the imperative of the verb 
gifan, to give, and unless as the imperative of the verb onlesan, to dismiss, 
would only serve to perplex and embarrass. Where, however, the words 
are still in current use in the language, the case is different, and it becomes 
extremely doubtful whether they ought to be considered as prepositions 
and conjunctions, or whether they ought not to be classed among other 
parts of speech according to their obvious meaning. Examples of this 
sort are except, exceptuig, regarding, touching, respecting^ provided, not- 
withstanding, &c. 

365. Conjunctions are generally divided into Copulative and 

366. The Copulative are and, also^ because, both, for; if, 
since, that, then, therefore, wherefore, &c. 

367. The Disjunctive are or. nor, either, neither, but, yet, 
than, lest, though, unless, notwithstanding, &c. 


368. A Preposition is a word placed before a noun 
to show its relation to some other word : as^ I write with 
a pen. 

369. Withj in this example, shows the relation of pen to the 
word write ; it connects the act and the instrument^ and shows 
the relation between them. Prepositions and Conjunctions are 
both connecting words, and are intimately related. 

370. Some of the Prepositions are original and uncompounded 
words. These are the most important, and should be thoroughly 

meaning of if? Unless ? How are these words to be now regarded and 
parsed ? In what case are the words usually called conjunctions and pre- 
positions, to be considered as some other parts of speech ? What ex- 
amples are given ? 

c. 365. How are conjunctions generally divided ? 366. Which are the 
copulative conjunctions ? 367. The disjunctive ? 

c. 368. What is a preposition ? 369. What relation does with show in 
the sentence *' I write with a pen ?" With what are the prepositions inti- 
mately related ? 370. Which of the prepositions are most important ? 


committed to memory. Nearly all of them refer in some way to 
^lace or position. 

371. The simple prepositions are nineteen ; viz., 


















in through 

372. After is supposed to be the comparative of aft. Doubts 
have been raised in regard to the true character of past, 

373. The prefix a, which occurs in so many English com- 
pounds, represents a variety of small words, such as at, of in, on, 
to, &c. In the compound prepositions in which this occurs, it 
generally represents on or in. The other part of the compound 
is some noun, adjective, adverb, or other preposition. 

374. The Prepositions formed by prefixing a (on or in), are as 
follows : 

above amid ) 

about amidst > 

across among 

against amongst 

along around 


375. Several Prepositions are formed in like manner by pre- 
fixing be (by) to various nouns, adjectives, adverbs, &c. 

The Prepositions formed by prefixing be are ; 

before Reside 2 

ft^hind besides S 

below between ) 

beneath betwixt j ^ 


a. 371. Repeat the nineteen simple prepositions. I 

c. 372. What is remarked of after ? Past ? 373. What does the pre- 
fix a represent in compound words ? W^hat in the compound prepositions ? 
374. Repeat the prepositions formed by a. 375. What does be represent 


876. Several compound Prepositions are formed by uniting" 
without change two prepositions, or a preposition and an adverb. 
These are ; 

upon vi^ithin 

toward without 

towards throughout 

unto underneath, 


377. According to, instead of, and out of, are sometimes 
inserted among the compound Prepositions. But there is no 
necessity of such a course. The v/ords are written separately 
and may all be parsed separately. According is an adjective or 
participle, and always belongs to some noun expressed or under- 
stood. Instead is simply in stead. Out is either an adverb or 
an adjective, according to circumstances. 

378. Several words are sometimes called Prepositions, which 
are really participles and may be parsed as such. Thus, " The 
Lord hath spoken good concerning Israel." Here, concerning 
means sim'^ly pertaining to, and is no more a preposition than 
pertaining would be. " During life" may be " life enduring," 
the case absolute "durante vita," while life endures. Except 
may always be parsed as the Imperative. To parse the words 
in the manner here indicated requires some considerable skill 
and practice in the analysis of sentences, and perhaps should 
not be attempted by those just commencing the study. Begin- 
ners may at first for convenience treat them as prepositions. 
They are ; 

bating excepting 

concerning regarding 

during respecting 

except touching. 

379. There is no more reason for considering near and nigh 
Prepositions than for considering like one. The preposition to is 

in the compound prepositions ? Repeat the prepositions formed by pre- 
fixing he. 376. Repeat the prepositions formed by uniting two words 
without change. 377. What is remarked of according to, &c. ? 378. How 
may concerning, during, &c., be considered ? What words belong to this 


understood in all such cases ; thus, " like (to) a man," " near (to) 
the city," "nigh (to) the river." An ellipsis of /ram after the 
adverb off has in like manner caused the latter word sometimes 
to be inserted incorrectly among the prepositions. Ex. " off (from) 
his horse." 

380. Several words are used both as prepositions and adverbs; 
RS, till, until, after, before; or, prepositions and conjunctions; 
as, then, for, &c. ; or, prepositions, adverbs, and conjunctions; as, 
" since that time," a preposition ; " long since,^^ an adverb ; 
^^ since we must part," a conjunction. 


381. An Interjection is a word used in making 
sudden exclamations ; as, oh! ah ! 

382. The principal Interjections are ; adieu, ah, alas, alack, 
aha, begone, hark, ho, ha, he, hail, halloo, hum, hush, hist, huzza, 
lo, O, oh, pshaw, see, &c. 

383. Some of the words usually called interjections are other parts of 
speech, and may be parsed accordingly ; as behold, a verb in the impera- 
tive ; strange! an ellipsis for it is strange, &c. When the words are not 
resolvable in this way, but are mere exclamations (and these are the only 
true interjections), it seems doubtful whether they ought to be considered 
as a part of speech, any more than the barking of a dog or the mere noise 
of any other animal. 

383. By the Derivation of words is meant tracing 
them to their original form and meaning. 

384. This part of Etymology has assumed so much importance as to be- 
come a separate branch of study, and several excellent works on the sub- 
class? How is it best for beginners to proceed in regard to these words? 
379. What is remarked of nigh and near? Off? 380. What is remarked 
of words belonging to several parts of speech ? 

a. 381. What is an Interjection? 

c. 382. What are the principal interjections ? 

d. 383. What is remarked of heholdy strange, &c. ? Of interjections in 
general ? 

h. 383. What is meant by the derivation of words? 


ject have been prepared. In like manner, the Spelling Book and Dic- 
tionary may be considered as having grown out of a particular branch of 
Orthography. In consequence of the existence of separate works on 
these three points, they are passed over in Grammar more cursorily than 
they would otherwise be. Still it is not deemed expedient to pass them 
over altogether. As a few of the most important rules for spelling were 
given, so a very brief summary will be presented of some of the most es- 
sential principles of Derivation. For a more complete discussion of the 
subject, see Oswald's Etymological Dictionary, or some other work of that 

385. A Primitive word is a word in its original form ; as, 

886. A Derivative word is a word formed from another by some 
change in its termination, or by the addition of some letters at 
the beginning or end of the word ; as, goodiness. When the ad- 
ditional letters make by themselves an entire w^ord, the word 
formed is generally called a compound ; as. landlord. 

387. A letter or syllable placed at the beginning of a word, is 
called a prefix. 

388. A letter or syllable placed at the end of a word, is called 
an affix or suffix. 

389. The Prefixes are generally prepositions, and belong to 
three principal classes, viz. the Saxon, the Latin, and the Greek. 


A signifies on or in ; as, ashore, that is, on shore. 

Be signifies about ; as, bestir, that is, stir about ; also for or 
before ; as, ftespeak, that is, to speak for or before. It has also 
several other meanings. 

Por denies; as, bid, /orbid. 

Fore signifies before ; as, see, foresee. 

Mis signifies defect or error ; as, take, mistake. 

d. 384. What is remarked of this part of Etymology? In what work 
will a more complete discussion of the subject be found ? 

c. 385. What is a primitive word ? 386. A derivative word ? 387. A 
prefix ? 388. An afiix ? 389. What are most of the prefixes ? How are 
they divided ? 

c. 390. What are principal Saxon prefixes ? What does a mean, and 
how is it illustrated ? Be ? <fec., &c. 



Over denotes superiority or excess ; as, come, overcome; done, 

Out signifies excess or superiority ; as, run, outrun. 

Un before an adjective, signifies not; as, worthy, unworthy; 
before a verb it signifies the undoing of the act expressed by the 
verb ; as, tie, untie. 

Up denotes motion upward ; as, start, ifpstart ; and also, sub- 
version ; as, set, wj^set. 

With signifies against^ from ; as, stand, i^ii^stand ; draw, 


A {ah, or ahs) signifies from or aivay ; as, abstract, to draw 

Ad, signifies to, at; as, adjoin, to join to; {Ad assumes dif- 
ferent forms according to the first letter of the root to which it is 
prefixed ; as, «5cend, accede, fl/Tect, aggrieve, &c.) 

Ambi from ambo, both, signifies double ; as, ambiguous. 

Ante signifies before ; thus, antedate, to date before. 

Bene signifies good, well ; as, benevolent, well disposed. 

Bi or bis means two or tivice ; as, bisect, to cut into two parts. 

Circum signifies round, about; as, circumnavigate, to sail 

Cis signifies on this side ; as, cis-alpine, on this side the Alps. 

Con {com, eo, or col) signifies together ; as, convoke, to call 

Contra {contro) signify against; as, contradict, to speak 
against ; {contra is sometimes changed into counter ; as, coun- 

De signifies of, from, or doion ; as, dethrone, to drive from the 

Di {dis, dif) signifies asunder; as, distract, to draw asunder. 
It also signifies negation or undoing ; as, disobey, not to obey. 

E {ex) signifies out of; as, elect, to choose out of 

Equi signifies equal ; as, equidistant, at an equal distance. 

c. 39L What are the principal iMtin prefixes ? What does o, ah, or ahs 
mean, and how is it illustrated ? Ad, &c. &c. 



Extra signifies out of, beyond ; as, extraordinary, beyond the 
ordinary course. 

In, before an adjective, serves as a negative ; as, active, inac- 
tive : before a verb, in signifies in or into ; as, include, to close in. 

Inter signifies beticeen ; as, intervene^ to come between. 

Intro signifies to^ within ; as, introduce, to lead in. 

Juxta signifies nigh to ; as, juxtaposition, placed near to. 

Mai or male (from malus, bad) signifies ill or had ; as, mal- 
content, discontented. 

Manu (from manus, a hand) signifies with or by the hand ; as, 
manuscript, anything written by the hand. 

Multi signifies many ; as, multiform, having many forms. 

Ob signifies opposition ; as, obstacle, something standing in 
opposition ; {Ob has the various forms of oc, of, o, op ; as, occur, 

Omni signifies all ; as, omnipotent, all powerful. 

Per signifies through or thoroughly; as, perfect, that is, 
thoroughly done. 

Post signifies after; as, postscript, written after. 

PrcB or pre signifies before ; as, prevent, to go before, to stop. 

Pro signifies ybr?^ or for loards ; as, promote, to move forwards. 

Prceter or preter signifies past or beyond ; as, preternatural, 
beyond the course of nature. 

Re signifies again or back ; as, regain, to gain back. 

Retro signifies backwards ; as, retrograde, going backwards. 

Se signifies apart or without; as, secrete, to hide, to put 

Sine signifies without ; as, sinecure, without care or labour. 

Subter signifies under ; as, subterraneous, under the earth. 

Super signifies above or over ; as, superscribe, to w^ite above 
or over. 

Trans signifies over, from one place to another ; as, trans- 
port, to carry over. 


A or an signifies privation or without ; as, anonymous, with- 
out a name. 

c. 392. What are the Greek prefixes ? What does a or an mean, and 
how is it illustrated ? Amphi, &c. ? 


Amphi signifies both or the two; as, amphibious, that is, 
having two lives, or capable of living both on land and in water. 

Ana signifies through or up ; as, anatomy, a cutting through 
or up. 

Anti signifies against ; as, antichristian, against Christianity ; 
(^Anti sometimes contracted into ant ; as, antarctic, opposite the 

Apo signifies from; as, apogee, from the earth. {Apo is 
sometimes contracted into ap ; as, aphelion, away from the sun.) 

Dia signifies through ; as, diameter, a measure through. 

Epi signifies upon ; as, epidemic, upon the people. 

Hyper signifies over, above ; as, hypercritical, over or too 

Hypo signifies under, implying concealment ; as, hypocrite, a 
person concealing his real character. 

Meta signifies change, transmutation ; aS; metamorphosis, a 
change of shape. 

Mono signifies single ; as, monosyllable, a word of one syllable. 

Para signifies beyond, on one side ; as, paradox, an opinion 
beyond or contrary to the general opinion. 

Peri signifies about; as, periphrasis, a speech in a round 
about way, a circumlocution. 

Poly signifies many ; as, polysyllable, a word of many syl- 

Semi (demi, hemi) signifies half; as, hemisphere, half of a 

Syn signifies with, together ; as, synod, meeting together. 
{Syn has also the forms sy, syl, sym ; as, system, syllogism, 


393. The Affixes are very numerous, and cannot always be 
traced satisfactorily to their origin. They are generally classi- 
fied according to their signification. The following are the prin- 
cipal classes. 

c. 393. What is remarked of the affixes ? How are they divided ? 



394, Affixes denoting the agent or doer : 

an, as in guardian. ent, as in adhere/i^. 





















395. Affixes denoting the person acted upon : 

ate, as in potentate. ite, as in favourzYe. 

ee, assignee. 

396. Affixes denoting being or state of being : 

acy, as 

in Y)lracy. 


as in achieve?nenf. 

































897. Affixes denoimg jurisdiction : 

dom, as 

in kingcZom. 

ric, as in bishopric. 

398. Affixes 

denoting diminution : 

cle, as 

m corpuscle. 



in duckZi?i^. 







399. Affixes 

denoting of or pertaining to : 

"«c, as in elegiac. 

ic, as 





















c 394. What affixes denote the agent or doer, with an example of each? 
395. The person acted upon ? 396. Being or state of being ? 397. Juris- 
diction ? 398. Diminution? 399. Of, or pertaining to? 




400. Affixes denoting full of: 
ate, as in affectionate. 

ous, as in 


ful, ho'^eful. 
ose, globose. 




401. Affixes denoting capacity ; 
ive, as in communicatzve. 
able. profitable. 

ible, as in 


402. Affixes denoting to make : 

ate, as in alienage. 
en, brighten. 
fy, justify. 

ise, as in 


403. Miscellaneous affixes : 

like signifies likeness, as in saintZi/ce. 
ly " " " maidenZy. 
ish " small degree of anything, as in blackis/i. 

less " negation, 

ward " in the direction of. 


c. 400. Full of ? 401. Capacity? 402. To make? i.0^. Miscellaneous 
affixes ? 


404. Syntax treats of sentences. 

405. A sentence is an assemblage of words making a complete 
sense ; as, Man is mortal. 

406. Two or more words rightly put together and not making 
a complete sense, are called ^phrase. 

407. The principal parts of a sentence are the subject (or 
nominative), the attribute (or verb), and the object. 

408. Thus, in the sentence " John studies his lessons," John 
is the subject or thing of which the affirmation is made, studies 
is the attribute or thing affirmed, and lessons is the object. 

409. A simple sentence contains but one subject and one 
finite verb ; as, Life is short. 

410. A compound sentence contains two or more simple sen- 
tences connected by one or more conjunctions ; as, Life is short, 
but art is long. 

411. Syntax is divided into Concord and Government. 

412. Concord is the agreement of one word with another in 
gender, number, case, or person. 

413. Government is the power of one word in determining the 
mood, tense, or case of another. 

414. The Rules of Syntax were formerly arranged according to the fore- 
going division. To adhere rigidly to such a division occasions many seri- 
ous inconveniences. Subjects intimately connected in every other respect, 
are often widely sundered because of their difference in this one unim- 
portant particular. By the same arbitrary arrangement, rules of essential 
importance, which the pupil must know before he can make any progress 

a. 404. What does Syntax treat of? 

e. 405. What is a se Alienee ? 406. A phrase? 407. What are the prin- 
cipal parts of a sentence? 408. Example. 409. What is a. simple sen- 
tence? 410. A compoi/Ti^ sentence ? 411. How is SyntSLX divided ? 412. 
What is Concord ? 413. Gcyvernment ? 

d. 414. Why is the above arrangement not adhered to ? 415. What ar 



in parsing, are thrown far forward in the book quite beyond his reach, ex 
cept by wading through a mass of rules which he is not yet qualified to 

415. The best of the more recent grammarians, therefore, very wisely 
cease to insist upon this distribution, and practically adopt that which 
arises naturally from the analysis of a simple sentence. The principal 
parts of a sentence are the subject, the attribute, and the object, in other 
words the nominative, the verb, and the objective. The agreement of the 
verb with its nominative, and the government of the objective case, there- 
fore, demand the immediate attention of the pupil, at the very threshold 
of syntax. As soon as he has learned to resolve simple sentences, he is 
prepared for those which are more complex. This complexity arises either 
from the combination of several simple sentences into one, or from con- 
necting various adjuncts with the principal parts of a sentence. Thus, the 
adjective is connected with the noun, the adverb with the verb or adjec- 
tive, pronouns with their antecedents, &c. In this manner, the various 
leading rules arise nearly in the order in which they are wanted by the 
pupil, while under each leading rule are given all the exceptions and sub- 
sidiary rules naturally connected with the subject. This arrangement may 
not be as strictly logical as the former, but its practical advantages are 
such that it bids fair to be generally adopted. 

416. In illustration of these remarks let us suppose a case. The sim- 
plest form of a sentence is that presented in the words ** John writes." 
The formula here given is the crystallizing centre around which all the 
parts of a sentence, no matter how complicated, necessarily cluster. Il 
is, therefore, the starting point in every attempt at grammatical analysis 
In accordance with this view of the subject, the rules which apply to such 
a sentence are made to form the first two rules of syntax. " John writes 
letters'' furnishes another step in the analysis, and leads to the tTiird rule, 
relating to the government of the objective case. " John writes letters in 
haste,"" introduces rule fourth, relative to prepositions. In like manner, 
without repeating the whole sentence, introducing the clause *' by his 
father's permission," creates a necessity for rule fifth, providing for the 
government of the possessive. " To his brother Thomas," presents a case 
of apposition, rule sixth. The sentence may be conceived not unnaturally 

rangement of the Rules of Syntax is preferred ? What three points de- 
mand the pupil's attention immediately on beginning to parse? What are 
some of the ways by which a simple sentence is rendered complex ? What 
advantage is gained by giving the rules in the order here proposed ? 

d. 416. What example is given in illustration ? To what then do the 
first tivo rules relate? How is the third called for ? The fourth ? The 
fiftJi ? The sixth ? The other rules ? 

SYNTAX. 105 

as running on thus ; " In which, (Pronoun, Rule 7th,) after a (Article, Rule 
8th,) long (Adjective, Rule 9th,) story about their (Adjective Pronoun, Rule 
10th,) sports, happening (Participle, Rule 11th,) suddenly (Adverb, Rule 
12th,) to remember, (Infinitive, Rule 13th,) he stops short, aw^ (Conjunction, 
Rule 14th,) exclaims, oh! (Interjection, Rule 15th,) did you ever hear, &c." 
In this way, step by step, the sentence increases in complexity, every new 
clause giving rise to a new rule in the order in which it seems naturally to 
be wanted. 

417. The fifteen rules, thus rapidly referred to, are those which the learner 
needs at every step in parsing, which he must have at his tongue's end and 
quote on all occasions. They are exceedingly short and simple, none of 
them requiring a greater effort either of the memory or the understanding 
than the rule that "a verb agrees with its nominative case in number and 
person." At the same time they are comprehensive, covering fairly the 
whole ground of syntax. All the subordinate and subsidiary rules and ex- 
ceptions are arranged under these fifteen primary rules, in such order as 
seems best suited to combine convenience of reference with accuracy and 
fulness of detail. 

Remark. — Parsing consists in slating the grammatical properties and 
relations of words, and the rules of syntax, which properly apply to them. 
Instead of a mere verbal description of this process, one or more models 
of parsing will be given under each rule, with numerous examples. 

In following the model, the teacher must be careful to see that the pupil 
does not get into a habit of going through the routine without apprehend- 
ing the meaning. To prevent such a result, and to facilitate the process 
of learning to parse, it might be well, uniformly at first, and frequently 
afterwards, to throw each successive step into the form of a question. 
Thus, in the first example on the next page, is " James" a name given to 
individuals or to whole classes ? Does it denote a person of the male sex 
or the female sex ? Is " James" the person speaking, spoken to, or spoken 
of? &c., &c. 

By constantly referring to the definitions in the first part of the book, 
and quoting the essential parts in the manner indicated in the first of the 
following models, the process of parsing becomes a perpetual review, and 
is therefore very important at first. In course of time, however, when the 
pupil is perfectly familiar with the definitions, the process becomes tedious, 
and may very well be abridged. Two models, therefore, will be given 
under each of the leading rules, one for beginners, and one for those more 

d. 417. What is remarked of the importance of these fifteen rules? 
Their simplicity ? Their comprehensiveness ? The subordinate rules and 
exceptions ? 




418. The subject of the verb is nominative to it, 

419. Rule I. is violated by putting the subject of the verb in any other 
case than the nominative. 

420. If the verb is known, the subject or nominative may be recognised 
by putting who or what with the verb, so as to make a question of the sen- 
tence. The answer to the question indicates the subject or nominative. 
Take, for instance, this sentence, " Indolence undermines the foundation 
of virtue." Question. — What " undermines, &c. ?" Ans. — "Indolence." 
Indolence, therefore, is the subject of the verb and is nominative to it. 

Questions and Exercises. — (See Remark, page 105.) 

a. 418. What is rule I. ? 

a. How do you parse "James" in the sentence, ^^ James writes a letter ?" 

Ans. 1. — " James is a noun, because it is the name of a person, (106); 
proper, because it is a name given to individuals (111)5 of the masculine 
gender, because it denotes the male sex (123) ; in the third person, because 
it is spoken of (158) ; singular number, because it denotes one (135); and 
nominative case, because something is asserted of it (163) ; and is nomina- 
tive to the verb " writes," because it is the subject of it, according to Rule 
I., which says, *' The subject of the verb is nominative to it." 

Ans. 2. — " James" is a noun proper, of the masculine gender, in the 
third person, singular number, and nominative case ; and is nominative to 
the verb " writes," according to Rule I., which says, " The subject of the 
verb is nominative to it." 

a. Parse in like manner each of the words italicised in the following 
sentences : Virtue ennobles the mind. Vice debases it. London is a great 
city. A good conscience fears nothing. 

419. How is Rule I, violated ? 

How do you correct the sentence, " Him and her are of the same age ?" 

Ans. — Him and her are in the objective case. They should be in the 
nominative, because they are the subject of the verb are, and should read 
he and she, according to Rule I., which says " The subject of the verb is 
nominative to it." 

a. Correct, in the same m.anner, the following sentences. Him and I 
could not agree. They and us agreed to do it. You and them had a long 
dispute. Thomas and me learned the lesson together. 

a. 420. How may the subject or nominative be ascertained? Point out 
the word which is the subject or nominative in each of the following sen- 
tences. (The words italicised are verbs.) The mind is strengthened by ex- 
ercise. Devotion promotes virtue. Industry in youth gives ease in old 
age. Great talents are not always great blessings. 

SYNTAX. 107 

421. The subject of the verb is generally a noun or pronoun. 
Sometimes it is an infinitive mood or part of a sentence taken as 
a noun. 

422. A noun or pronoun addressed^ and not the subject of any 
verb; is in the nominative case independent. In many languages 
this construction forms a distinct case, called the vocative. 

423. A noun or pronoun put before a participle, and not the 
subject of any verb, is in the nominative case absolute. 

N. B. — The case absolute in almost all languages besides the English, is 
some other than the nominative. Thus, in the Latin it is the ablative, in 
the Greek and most of the Oriental languages, the genitive, &c. 

424. In the construction, called the case absolute, the nomina- 
tive is the subject of the participle ; and the two words taken 
together form a dependent clause equivalent to a nominative and 
verb; preceded by a conjunction. Thus. '■' Whose grey top shall 
tremble, he descending ;" that is, ^- ivhen he descends.'''' 

c. 421. What part of speech is the subject of the verb generally ? What 
else is sometimes the subject? Point out the subject or nominative in the 
following sentences : Good and wise men only can be real friends. To 
see the sun is pleasant. To despair in adversity is madness. He has for- 
gotten me. 

c. 422. When is a noun or pronoun in the nominative case independent ? 
What is this construction called in many languages ? How do you parse 
" James" in the sentence, " James, have you written your letter ?" 

Ans. — " James is a noun proper, of the masc. gender, in the 3d p., sing. 
n., and nom. case ; and is in the nominative independent, according to the 
note under Rule T., which says, "A noun or pronoun addressed, and not 
the subject of any verb, is in the nominative case independent." 

c. Point out, and then parse the noun addressed, in each of the follow- 
ing sentences: Show pity. Lord. Arise, Peter, kill and eat. Whence 
and what art thou, execrable shape? 

c. 423. When is a noun or pronoun put in the case absolute ? 424. In 
absolute clauses, what is the nominative the subject of? What are the 
noun and participle in this case equivalent to ? What is " he descending" 
equivalent to ? 

c. How do you parse " sun" in the sentence, " the sun having risen, we 
will commence work ?" 

Ans. — " Sun" is a noun common, of the neut. gend., in the .3d. p., sing. 

n„ and nom. case ■; and is in the nominative absolute v-ith the participle 

1( having risen, according to the note under Rule I., which says, " a noun or 

j pronoun, put before a participle, and not the subject of any verb, is in the 


425. The rule for the construction of absolute clauses is violated by 
putting the subject of the participle in any other case than the nominative. 
As the nominative and objective cases of nouns are alike, no false syntax 
can occur under this rule except in the case of pronouns. 

426. The noun or pronoun in absolute clauses is often omitted. 
ThuSj in this sentence, '-generally speaking, labour is not without II 
its reward," speaking is put absolutely with we. men. or some 
other word of this kind understood. 

427. The nominative in apposition is considered under the j 
general head of Apposition. Rule VI. Under the same head are] 
considered such sentences as these, '• he that heareth, let him ' 
hear/' " Gad, a troop shall overcome him." &c. 

428. Every nominative case except the case independent, the 
case absolute, and the case of apposition, should be the subject of 
some verb expressed or understood. 

nominative case absolute." (N. B. — The participle with which the nomi- 
native in such sentences stands connected is an essential part of the con- 
struction, and should always he mentioned in parsing the noun.) 

c. Point out, and then parse, each of the nouns in the nominative abso- 
lute, in the following sentences. His father being sick, John came home 
in great haste. Our work being finished, we will play. People wonder 
why he does not return, there being no longer any cause for his absence. 

c. What is the clause " the sun having risen" equivalent to ? What is each 
of the other absolute clauses in the preceding sentences equivalent to ? 

c. 425. How is the rule for the construction of absolute clauses often 
violated ? 

c. How do you correct the following sentence : " Solomon was the 
v/isest of men, him only excepted who spake as never man spake"? Ana, 
— " Him" is the objective case. It should be in the nominative, because it is 
placed absolutely with " excepted," and should read " he only excepted," ac- 
cording to the note under Rule I., which says, ** A noun or pronoun put 
before a participle, and not the subject of any verb, is put in the nominO' 
five absolute." 

c. Correct, in like manner, the following sentences : Them descending, 
the ladder fell. Thee looking on, shame to be overcome or overreached, 
would utmost vigour raise. Whom being dead, the hostility ceased. 

c. 426. Is the noun or pronoun in absolute clauses ever omitted? How " 
may the ellipsis be supplied in the phrase " generally speaking" ? " His 
character, viewing it in the most charitable manner, is full of blemishes"? 
" Regarding the point at issue, there can be no difference of opinion"? 

c. 427. Where is (he nominative in apposition considered ? 428. What is 

SYNTAX. 109 

429. This rule is often violated by putting a noun and its pronoun as 
nominative to the same verb. 

RULE 11. 
430. A Verb agrees with its nominative in Number 
AND Person. 

431. Rule IT. is violated by putting the verb in any other number or per- 
son than its nominative. 

the rule in regard to every other nominative, except the nominative inde- 
pendent, absolute, and in apposition ? 

c. 429. How is this rule otlen violated ? How do you correct the fol- 
lowing sentence : " The man, he is rich" ? 

Ans. — Either man or he is superfluous, because it is not the subject of 
any verb. It should read, " the man is rich," or '* he is rich," according to 
the note under Rule I., which says, " Every nominative case, except the 
case independent, the case absolute, and the case of apposition, should be 
the subject of some verb expressed or understood." 

c. Correct, in like manner, the following sentences: My banks, they are 
furnished with bees. This truth, if it had been attended to, the parties 
would have escaped a great deal of trouble. 

a. 430. What is Rule II. ? 

a. How do you parse " writes," in the sentence, " James writes a. letter"? 

Ans. 1. — " Writes" is a verb, because it asserts something (258) ; transi- 
tive, because it requires an objective case (" letter") after it (261) ; irregular, 
because it does not form the past tense and perfect participle by the addi- 
tion of d or ed to the present, {present write, past wrote, perf. part, writ- 
ten, 267) ; in the active voice, because the agent is in the nominative case 
(288) ; indicative mood, because it affirms directly and without limitation 
(299) ; present tense, because it denotes present time (322) ; and third per- 
son, singular, to agree with " James," according to Rule II., which says, 
** A ver^-agrees with its nominative in number and person." 

Ans. 2. — *• Writes" is an irregular, transitive verb {present, write, pasty 
wrote, perf. part, written); in the active voice, indicative mood, present 
tense, third person, singular number, and agrees with " James," according 
to Rule II., which says, "A verb agrees with its nominative in number 
and person." 

a. Parse, in like manner, the words italicised in the following sentences : 
Knowledge gives ease to retirement. Good designs are ruined by delay. 
The mind should be stored with knowledge. The mail has arrived. 

a. Point cut, and then parse the nominative in each of the foregoing 
sentences, according to the directions under Rule I. (418, 420.) 

a. 431. How is Rule 11. violated ? 



432. If the nominative be known, the verb may be recognised by asking 
what is asserted of the nominative. The answer to the question will con- 
tain the verb. Take, for instance, the sentence before quoted. " Indo- 
lence undermines the foundation of virtue." Question. — What is asserted 
of" indolence ?" Ans. — It "undermines," &c. Undermines, therefore, is 
the verb. 

433. The Infinitive mood in English has no subject. In this respect it 
differs from the classical and many other languages, in which the infinitive 
very commonly has a subject like the other moods, but is distinguished by 
this peculiarity, that the subject is not in the nominative, but in the accusa- 
five or objective. 

434. In the Imperative mood, the subject or nommative is generally 
omitted, thou or you being understood. 

435. In the Indicative. Subjunctive, and Potential moods, 
every verb should have a nominative expressed^ except where 
two or more verbs are connected in the same construction. 

Note. — For " as follows," " as concerns," &c., see Rule XIV. 

a. How do you correct the sentence, " I loves study" ? 

Ans. — ** Loves" is in the third person. It should be in the first person, 
to agree with its nominative, I, and should read " I love reading," accord- 
ing to Rule II., which says, " A verb agrees with its nominative in number 
and person." 

a. Correct, in like manner, the following sentences : The days of man 
is but as grass. A soft answer turn away wrath. The number of our 
days are with thee. A variety of pleasing objects charm the eye. 

a. Point out, and then parse each of the nominatives in the foregoing 
sentences, according to Rule I. (418, 420.) 

a. 432. How may the verb be recognised ? Point out, and then parse 
the verb in each of the following sentences. (N. B. — The word italicised 
is the nominative.) The peace of society depends on justice. Constant 
'perseverance in the path of virtue will gain respect. Our most sanguine 
prospects have often been blasted. A judicious arrangement of studies 
facilitates improvement. 

a. Parse the nominatives italicised in the foregoing sentences. 

d. 433. What is remarked of the Infinitive mood in English ? In other 
languages ? 434. What is remarked of the subject of the Imperative mood ? 

c. 435. What is remarked of the subject of verbs in the Indicative, Sub- 
junctive, or Potential ? 

c. How do you correct the first clause in the following letter ; 

Philadelphia, April 8, 1845. 
Dear Sir : — Have just received your letter of yesterday. Am sorry to 
hear that the stereotype plates are sold, Hope to have better luck next 


436. When the subject or nominative of the verb is not a noun, 
but an infinitive mood or part of a sentence, the verb should be 
in the singular. But if there are two infinitives, or two clauses, 
making- two distinct subjects, then the verb should be plural. 

437. A collective noun, or a noun of multitude (114), requires 
the verb to be in the plural, whenever the idea is plural. 

438. The idea is plural when reference is made to the several objects 
that compose a thing, rather than to the thing itself in the mass. 

439. Some nouns, which are not considered nouns of multi- 
tude, are frequently used in the singular form, with a plural 
meaning; as, •* ten sail of the line." In such cases the verb 
should be plural. 

440. Such nominatives as means ^ news, &lq,. (155), whenever 
they express a singular idea, have a verb in the singular. 

time. On the whole, think have not quite lost all chance of them yet. 
Very truly yours, &c. 

Ans. — " Have received" is a verb in the indicative mood, without any 
nominative. It should read " I have received," according to the note un- 
der Rule II., which says, '* In the Indicative, Subjunctive, and Potential 
moods, every verb should have a nominative expressed, except when two 
verbs are connected in the same construction." 

c. Correct, in like manner, all the other mistakes in the letter. 

c. Parse all the verbs in the letter, which are in the Indicative, Subjunc- 
tive, or Potential moods. 

c. 436. When an infinitive mood or part of a sentence is the nominative, 
what is the rule for the number of the verb ? N. B. — Examples for pars- 
ing, &c,, will be found under Rule XIII. 

c. 437. When does a collective noun, or a noun of multitude, require the 
verb to be in the plural ? 438. When is the idea plural ? 

c. IIow do you correct this sentence, " The people has no opinion of its 
own" ? 

Ans. — "Has" is singular. It should be plural, because the idea o? peo- 
ple is plural, and should read " the people have no opinion," according to 
the note under Rule II., which, says, " A collective noun, or a noun of mul- 
titude, requires the verb to be in the plural, whenever the idea is plural." 

c. Correct, in like manner, the following sentences. Send the multitude 
away, that it may go and buy itself bread. The multitude eagerly pursues 
pleasure as the chief good. Some people is busy and yet does very little. 

c. Parse each of the verbs in the foregoing sentences, after correction. 

c. 439. How are some nouns, which are not nouns of multitude, fre- 
quently used ? What is the rule for the verb in such cases ? 440. What is 


441. Some nouns in the plural, preceded by every, express an 
idea which is singular ; as, " every twelve months." In such 
cases the verb should be singular. 

442. When the verb to he, or any other similar verb, stands 
between two nominatives (Rule vi., note), one of which is singu- 
lar, and the other plural, the verb agrees with that one which is 
the real subject of the assertion. Thus, " the wages of sin is 
death." In this sentence death is the subject of the assertion, 
and wages is a part of what logicians call the predicate, in other 
words, what is affirmed or asserted of "death." 

443. It, used indefinitely (221), is always considered as the subject, and 
the verb agrees with it, and not with the other nominative ; thus, " It is /," 
*' it is they,^' &c. 

the rule for such nominatives as means, news, &c. ? 441. What is re- 
marked of some plural nouns preceded by every? 442. When the verb 
to he, or any similar verb, stands between two nominatives, one of which 
is singular, and the other plural, with which does the verb agree ? 443. 
What is remarked of it used indefinitely ? 

c. Correct the following sentences (439 — 443) : Four pair of ducks was 
brought into market. Twenty head of sheep was grazing on the hill. A 
great cause of the low state of industry, was the restraints put upon it. 
His meat were locusts and wild honey. The crown of virtue are peace 
and honour. 

h. 444. What is the rule for two or more nominatives in the singular, 
connected by and ? 

b. How do you parse " were" in the sentence quoted ? 

Ans. — " Were" is an irregular, intransitive verb, (am, v/as, been) ; in the 
Ind. mood, past t., 3d per., and plural number, to agree with its nomina- 
tives ** Socrates," and *• Plato," according to the note under Rule II., which 
says, " Two or more nominatives in the singular, connected by and, ex- 
pressed or understood, require a verb in the plural." 

N. B. — In parsing an intransitive verb, it is not necessary to name the 
voice, as no intransitives have any form but the active. 

b. How do you correct the following sentence, " Life and death is in the 
power of the tongue" ? 

Ans. — "Is" is singular. It should be plural, because it has two nomina- 
tives connected by and, and should read " Life and death are, &c.," accord- 
ing to the note under Rule II., which says "Two or more nominatives, 6lc.'* 

b. Correct, in the same manner, the following sentences : The time and 
place for the conference was agreed upon. Idleness and ignorance is the 
parent of many vices. Wisdom, virtue, happiness, dwells with the golden 

SYNTAX. 113 

444. Two or more nominatives in the singular, con- 
nected by and^ expressed or understood, require a verb 
in the plural ; as, " Socrates and Plato loere wise." 

445. When the singular nominatives, though connected by 
and^ belong to separate propositions, they have a singular verb. 

446. Singular nominatives connected by and, belong to separate proposi- 
tions, when accompanied by eachy every, no, not, or some other disuniting 
word; rs, '' every house, every grove was burnt," " good order, and not 
mean savings, produces profits." In the former sentence, the meaning is, 
*' every house was burnt, and every grove was burnt." In the latter, " good 
order produces profits, and mean savings do not." 

447. When two or more nouns are used to express only one 
subject, the verb is singular ; as, ** Why is dust and ashes proud 1" 

448. Two or more nominatives in the singular, con- 
nected by or or nor, require a verb in the singular ; as, 
" Ignorance or negligence has caused this mistake.'^ 

b. Parse the verbs in the foregoing sentences. Parse the nominatives. 

c. 445. When do nominatives, connected by and, have a singular verb ? 
446. When do they belong to separate propositions ? 447. When two or 
more nouns are used to express only one subject, what is the rule for the 
verb ? 

c. Correct the following sentences (445 — 447) : That distinguished poet, 
orator, and scholar are dead. A great statesman and general are fallen. 
A strong argument, and not a loud voice, bring conviction. Every city, 
town, and village were depopulated. 

5. 448. What is the rule for two or more nominatives in the singular, 
connected by or or nor ? 

b. How do you parse " has caused" in the sentence quoted ? 

Ans. — " Has caused" is a reg. trans, v. (cause, caused, caused) ; in the 
act. v., ind. mood, perf t., and 3d p. singular, to agree with " ignorance" 
or '* negligence," according to the note under Rule II., which says '* Two 
or more nominatives in the singular, connected by or or nor, require a verb 
in the singular." 

b. How do you correct the following sentence, " Neither precept nor 
disciphne are so forcible as example" ? 

Ans. — " Are" is plural. It should be singular, because it has two singu- 
lar nominatives connected by nor, and should read " neither precept nor 
discipline is, &c.," according to the note under Rule II., which says, "Two 
or more nominatives," &c. N. B. — In recitation, the pupil should repeat 
the whole rule. 



449. A singular and a plural nominative, connected by or or 
nor J require a plural verb; asj "Neither the troops, nor their 
commander^ were to be seen." 

450. When a verb has several nominatives of different per- 
sons^ connected by and^ the verb agrees with the first person 
rather than the second, and with the second rather than the 
third ; as, " He and / shared (1st per.) it between us^ 

451. When a verb has several nominatives of different per- 
sons, connected by or or nor, it agrees in person with the one 
next to it ; as, ^' Either thou or I am mistaken." 


452. A transitive verb, in the active voice, governs 


453, When the verb and the nominative are knov^'n, the objective may 
be recognised by forming a question with the verb, the nommative, and the 
interrogative, what or whom. The answer to the question is the objective. 
Thus, " James writes a letter." Quest. — " What" does James write ? Ans. 
— *' Letter." Letter, therefore, is the objective. For other modes of dis- 
tinguishing the objective, see articles 160 — 166. 

b. Correct, in like manner, the following sentences: Either the boy or 
the girl were present. Neither character nor dialogue were yet understood. 

b. Parse the verbs in the foregoing sentences. Parse the nominatives. 

c. 449. What is the rule for a singular and a plural nominative connected 
by or or nor ? Correct the following sentences. Neither the captain, nor 
the passengers, nor any of the crew was saved. Neither the secretaries, 
nor the president deserves to be praised. 

c. Parse the verbs and nominatives in the foregoing sentences. 

c. 450. What is the rule when a verb has several nominatives of differ- 
ent persons connected by and? 451. When connected by or or nor? 

c. Correct the following sentences (450 — 451) : Either 1 or thou am 
greatly mistaken. James, and thou, and I are attached to their country. 

a. 452. What is Rule III. ? 

a. How do you parse " letter " in the sentence, " writes a letter' ? 

Ans. 1. — (For the model of this, except in regard to the case, see 418.) 

Ans. 2. — " Letter is a noun com., of the masc. gend., in the 3d p., sing, 
num., and objective case, and is governed by the verb " writes," according 
to Rule III., which says, "A transitive verb," &c. (N. B. — The pupil is 
expected always to repeat the rule in full, although throughout the rest of 
the book he will not find it so printed. 

SYNTAX. 115 

454. Rule III. is violated by putting the object of the verb in any other 
case than the objective. 

455. A Participle has the same government as its verb. 

456. All transitive verbs in the active voice require an object. 

457. This is violated by using a transitive verb without an object, or by 
inserting a preposition between the verb and its object. 

453. The object of a transitive verb may be an infinitive mood, 
or part of a sentence, used as a noun (421). Thus, *' Boys love 
to play.'''' Here •' to play" is just as truly the object of the 
verb love, as if it were sport, or some other noun of similar im- 

459. Intransitive verbs do not govern an objective case, unless 
it be of a noun similar in signification to their own ; as, to run a 

a. 453. When the nominative and the verb are known, how may the ob- 
jective be recognised ? Point out, and then parse the ohjectives in the fol- 
lowing sentences, in which the nominatives and verbs are italicised. De- 
votion strengthens virtue. A good conscience fears nothing. Application 
in early life, will give ease in old age. Perseverance in labour will siir- 
mount every difficulty. 

a. Parse the nominatives and verbs in the above sentences (418, — 430). 

454. How is Rule III. violated ? How do you correct this sentence, " He 
and they we know, but who art thou" ? 

Ans. — '* He" and " they" are in the nominative. They should be in the 
objective, because they are the object of the verb "knows," and should 
read "Aim and them we know," according to Rule III, which says, &c. 

a. Correct, in like manner, the following sentences : She that is idle and 
mischievous, reprove sharply. Let thou and I the battle try. He who com- 
mitted the offence thou shouldst convict, not I who am innocent. 

c. 455. What is remarked of the participle ? 456. What do all transi- 
tire verbs require in the active voice ? 457. How may this rule be violated ? 
Correct the following sentences : I shall premise with two or three general 
observations. He ingratiates with some by traducing others. We ought 
to disengage from the world by degrees. 

c. 458. What may the object of a transitive verb sometimes be ? What is 
the object of the verb in the following sentences : You see how rapidly he 
does it. You heard that it was not so. They love to study. 

c. 459. Do intransitive verbs govern an objective ? Correct the follow- 
ing sentences : Repenting him of his design. It will be difficult to agree 
his conduct with the principles which he professes. Go, flee thee away 
into the land of Judea. 


460. An intransitive verb is sometimes used metaphorically in 
the place of another verb which is transitive, and when so used 
it governs the objective ; as, " The trees icept gums." 

461. Some verbs have two meanings, one of which is transi- 
tive^ the other intransitive. When used with a transitive mean- 
ing, they govern the objective. Thus, "to become" may mean 
either to bejlt^ or to grow to be, " The boy has become a man," 
means, " he has grown to be a man." " Such conduct becomes 
a man," means, "such conduct befits him." In the latter sense 
it is transitive. 

462. In most languages, there is a class of verbs derived from 
others, and called causatives. If the original verb expresses any 
particular action, the causative denotes the causing of that 
action. This practice is not wholly unknown to the English. 
Thus, " to lay" signifies " to cause to lie ;" " to raise" signifies 
"to cause to rise^^^ &c. Sometimes, also, an intransitive verb, 
without undergoing any change of form, assumes a causative 
meaning and becomes transitive ; as, " to walk a horse," meaning 
"to cause him to walk." 

463. The construction last mentioned is sometimes adopted 
where good usage hardly warrants it; as, "to grow cotton," 
meaning -^ to cause it to grov/." It would be better to avoid an 
expression which is, at least, of doubtful authority, and to use 
some other word, such as to raise. &c. 

464. Grammarians have sometimes distinguished between the 
"direct" object and the "indirect." Thus, "give a book to me." 
The direct object of the verb is " book," the indirect object is 
" me." This indirect object in most languages forms a distinct 
case, and is governed by the verb equally with the direct object. 
In English, it is always governed by a preposition. There is, in 
a few instances, an ellipsis of the preposition, which has led 

c. 460. What is observed of some intransitive verbs used metaphorically? 
461. What is observed of intransitive verbs having two meanings? 462. 
What are causative verbs ? Are there any such in English ? What exam- 
ples are given of verbs which answer a causative meaning, without chang- 
ing their form? 463. Mention any examples of this usage that are not 
considered as correct. 

c. 464. How have grammarians distinguished the object ? Flow is the 

SYNTAX. 117 

some erroneously to suppose that both cases are governed by the 
verb; as, "Give (to) me a book," "teach (to) me grammar/' &c. 
465. In the passive voice, the direct object becomes the nomi- 
native, but the indirect remains in the same construction, go- 
verned by the preposition; as, "The book is given to mer 
There seems to have been a tendency in the language to allow, 
m the passive, the indirect object to become the nominative, and 
let the direct object remain, governed by the verb ; as, active, " to 
teach grammar to m^;' passive, "I am taught grammar." Other 
instances are found in the expressions, " I was asked a question," 
"I was denied the privilege," &c., &c. This usage is against the 
genms of the language, and can hardly be considered as well 
established, except in the case of the verb "to teach." 

466. In parsing sentences which contain the objective con- 
strued with a verb in the passive voice, some grammarians con- 
sider the objective as governed by the passive, others as governed 
by some prepositions understood. Thus, " he is taught (in) gram- 
mar," — instructed in grammar. 


467. A preposition governs the objective case. 

468. Prepositions are generally placed before the word which 
they govern. 

indirect object always governed in English ? 465. What takes place in 
the passive voice? What tendency is observable in regard to the con- 
struction o^ these two objects in the passive ? Does this seem to be in ac- 
cordance with the genius of the language ? How far is it established ? 
466. What two modes are adopted for parsing - Grammar" in the sentence, 
** He was taught grammar" ? 

a. 467. What is Rule IV.? 458. How are prepositions generally ;,Za6-e^? 

a. How do you parse "father" in the sentence, - James writes a letter 
to his father" ? 

. ^"^•— " Father" is a noun common, masc, in the 3d pers. sing., and oh- 
jective case, and is governed by the preposition to, according to Rule IV., 
which says, &c. 

a. How do you parse " to" in the same sentence ? 

Aws.— " To" is a preposition, and is placed before " father" to show its 


469. Whom and ivhich sometimes, and that always^ precede 
the preposition; as, " the person whom I travelled with.'''* This 
mode of construction is generally considered inelegant, especially 
where the preposition is separated some distance from the word 
which it governs. The sentence just quoted would read better 
thus : " the person with whom I travelled." 

470. The preposition and the word governed by it, should be 
placed as near as possible to the preceding word to which they 
relate ; as, *• he was reading in a low voice, w-hen I entered," 
instead of " he was reading, when I entered, with a low voice." 
The words " with a low voice" relate to the act of reading, and 
should not unnecessarily be separated from it. 

471. Sometimes in law papers, and other documents of a for- 
mal nature, two prepositions govern jointly the same word ; as, 
" He is related to, and governed hy^ the same person." Such 
constructions in other kinds of writing should be avoided. The 
sentence may run thus ; " He is related to the same person, and is 
governed by him." 

relation to " writes," according to the definition, (368,) "A preposition is a 
word placed before a noun to show its relation to some other word." 

a. Parse, in like manner, the prepositions and the nouns governed by 
them in the following sentences. Indolence undermines the foundation 
of virtue. Indolence unfits a man for the duties of life. Men should lay 
a restraint upon their tastes. Knowledge gives ease to solitude. All men 
should subject their fancies to the government of reason. 

a. Parse all the other nouns in the foregoing sentences. Parse all the 

c. 469. What is remarked of the position of the relative pronouns? How 
is this mode of construction considered ? How do you correct the follow- 
ing sentences : Whom didst thou receive that intelligence from ? It was 
not him that they were angry with. The book, which the story is printed 
in, is full of misstatements. 

c. 470. How should the preposition and the word which it governs be 
placed ? How do you correct the following sentences ? The interruption 
and delay in the printing, renders the progress very slow of the work. — 
Beyond this period, the arts cannot be traced of civil society. 

c. 471. What sometimes occurs in law papers ? What is remarked of 
such constructions ? Correct this sentence : He is unacquainted with, and 
cannot speak upon that subject. 

SYNTAX. 119 

472. A still more objectionable mode of construction is, where 
the same word is governed jointly by a transitive verb and a pre- 
position ; as, " he was warned o/, and urged to avoid the danger." 
It should be, " He was warned of the danger, and urged to avoid 

473. Formerly, the preposition for was used before the infini- 
tive mood : as, " What went ye out/or to see I" 

474. The preposition is often followed by an adjective without 
any noun expressed ; as, in vain, in short, &c. These sentences 
are elliptical, and may be parsed either by supplying some noun, 
as, '' in a vain manner," &c., or the adjective may be treated as 
a noun. Either of these modes is better than calling the phrase 
an adverb. 

475. Sometimes one preposition immediately precedes another ; 
as, " From before the altar." The two prepositions in such 
cases should be considered as one^ just as in the case of the com- 
pound prepositions, upon, within, &c. (376.) 

476. Sometimes a preposition precedes an adverb ; as, at once, 
for ever, &c. The two words should be taken together, as in 
the preceding clause, and called an adverb. 

477. The prepositions are frequently omitted, particularly after 
verbs o^ giving ^ and procuring ; after adjectives of likeness or 
proximity; and before nouns denoting time, place, price^ mea- 
sure. &c. : as in the following examples. Give (to) me a book. 
Get (for) me an apple. Like (to) his father. Near (to) his 
home. They travelled (through) sixty miles (in) a day. A wall 
(by]) six feet high. Subjects worthy (of) fame. Books worth 
(worthy of?) a dollar. 

c. 472. What still more objectionable mode of construction sometimes 
occurs ? Correct these sentences. He dwelt upon, and strongly urged his 
claims. He received, but had not time to reply to the letter. 

c. 473. How was the preposition for formerly used ? Correct these sen- 
tences. He told me for to do it. He set out for to go home. 

c. 474. What ellipsis often lakes after the preposition ? How are such 
phrases to be parsed ? 475. What is remarked of a preposition occurring 
immediately before another preposition ? 476. Of a preposition before an 
adverb ? 

c. 477. In what cases does an ellipsis of the preposition take place ? 


478. The last example cited in the previous paragraph is 
somewhat disputed and not very clear. ^- Worth" appears to be an 
adjective, because it evidently qualifies the noun, and may itself 
be qualified by an adverb; as, ''He had a wife well worth the 
confidence which he placed in her." Here " well" qualifies 
worth, and " worth" qualifies wife, just as clearly as if it were 
worthy. The construction, too, seems precisely analogous to 
the following ; " This deed is no more worthy (of) heaven, than 
thou art worthy (of) her." As in the latter case there is an 
evident ellipsis of the preposition, the most natural solution of the 
former seems to be to say, that of is omitted, and that " worth," 
by an anomalous usage, is employed in the sense o^ loorthy. 

479. There is another usage of " worth," entirely distinct from the fore- 
going. In the phrase " Wo worth the chase," &c., it is agreed on all hands 
that " worth" is the Saxon Imperative of the verb weorthan, meaning sim- 
ply be to, or betide, " Wo be (to) the chase, &;c." 

480. At and to. At is used after a verb of rest, to after a 
verb o^ motion ; as, -'He went to Spain, and resides at Madrid." 

481. At and in. At is used before the name of a place which 
is small or distant ; in before large cities or countries ; as, at 
Princeton, at London ; in Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania. 

482. Between and among. Between refers to tivo.^ among to 
more than two. 

483. Many words derived from the Latin and Greek, are com- 
pounded with a preposition. Some writers are disposed in such 
cases to adopt the classical usage, and make the following prepo- 

478. What reasons are given for considering " worth," in the example, an 
adjective ? To what is the construction analogous ? What solution of the 
sentence is given ? 479. What different usage of " worth" is given ? How 
is this explained ? 

c. Supply the ellipsis in the following sentences. The book is like its 
author. There w^as a fountain near the city. His mother bought him a top. 
The next day, they set out early in the morning, and travelled fifty miles 
without stopping. 

c. 480. What is remarked of at and to ? 481. Of at and in ? 482. Of 
between and among ? Correct the following sentences : I have been to 
London, after having lived at France. I have lived two years at Philadel- 

c. 483. What is remarked of words derived from the Latin or Greek, 
and containing a preposition in combination ? 484. What is remarked of 



sition correspond to the one found in the compound ; as, •^'zverse 
from^'' " (Zepend /rom," &c. This is not according to the idiom of 
the language, which requires, "averse ^o," ''depend r/_po?i," &a 

484. The usages of the language in regard to the prepositions 
are exceedingly various, and cannot be fully enumerated in an ele- 
mentary work like the present. The more advanced student, who 
wishes to be accurate in this particular, should have by him some 
work of reference of standard authority, like Richa^rdsgn's Digs 
TiONARY, containing ample quotations from the best authors. The 
following list contains a few of the most common of these usages* 

485. Words followed by appropriate prepositions. 

Absent from 

Access to 

Accused of 

Acquit of 

Adapt to 

Affection for 

Alienate from 

Alliance with 

Bestow upon 

Comply with 

Consonant with 

Depend upon 

Dissent from 

Made of 

Martyr for 

Need of 

True to 

J Agent charged with a thing 
( Thing charged on an agent 

5 Avert from (verb) 
Averse to (adjective) 
5 Correspond to (verb) 
Correspondent with (adjective) 

Attribute to (verb) 
Attribute of (noun) 


J Diminish from (a verb) 
Diminution o/(a noun) 
Betray to a person 
into a thing 
Call on a person 
at a house 
for a thing 
Confide to (transitive) 

in (intransitive) 
Accord to (transitive) 

with (intransitive) 
Compare to (for illustration) 

icith (for quality) 
Admission to (access) 

into (entrance) 
Copy from nature 

after a parent 
Defend others from 

ourselves against 
Die o/a disease 
by a sword 

the usages of the language generally in regard to the prepositions ? What 
is the only mode of attaining entire accuracy in this respect ? 485. What 
^s the appropriate preposition after " absent" ? After " access" ? &c. 



Differ with a person in opinion Reconcile a person to 

from him in character a thing loith 

Agree mith a person Taste of (actual enjoyment) 

to a thing for (capacity for enjoying) 


486. The possessive case is governed by the noun 
signifying the thing possessed. 

437. The possessive case is not the only way in which the idea 
dF possession may be expressed. A very common mode of ex- 
pressing this idea is by using the preposition of Thus, " The 
house of my father," and " My father's house,'* express equally 
the idea of property. In substituting one of these modes of ex- 
pression for the other, care should be taken to see that the two 
are identical. In the expression, '•^ The house of Representatives" 
ojT does not convey the idea of possession, but o^ composition. It 
means the house or assembly, composed q/* Representatives. 

488. My, thy, her, our, your, their, are not considered as in 
the possessive case, but as possessive adjective pronouns. (208, 
209, 219, 244.) For the mode of parsing them see Rule X. 
Mine^ thine^ hers^ ours, yours, theirs, are called personal pro- 
nouns in the possessive case, governed by a noun understood. 

a. 486. What is Rule V. ? 

a. How do you parse " father's," in the sentence, *' John writes a letter 
by his father's permission" ? 

Ans, — " Father's" is a noun, com., masc, in the 3d per. sing., and pos- 
sessive case, governed by " permission," according to Rule V., which says, 

a. Parse, in like manner, all the nouns in the possessive case in the fol- 
lowing sentences : A man's manners often make his fortune. Asa's heart 
was perfect with the Lord. Helen's beauty caused the destruction of Troy. 

a. Parse all the other nouns, and the verbs and prepositions in the fore- 
going examples. 

c. 487. What other mode is there of expressing the idea of possession ? 
What care must be used in substituting one of these modes of expression 
for the other ? Correct the following examples : Gold's crown. The Re^ 
presentatives' House adjourned very early. 'Jhe Lord's day will come asf 
a thief in the night. 

c. 488. What are my, thy, &c., considered ? Mine, thine? &c. ^is and 
its ? What is remarked of this djsti.nction ? 

SYNTAX, 123 

His and its belong to both of these classes. This distinction is 
made rather for convenience of arrangement than from a convic- 
tion of any real difference in the meaning and use of tlie words, 
except the one already noticed (219) ; viz,, that they are written 
mine, thine, &c., when the noun following is omitted. 

489. The governing word is often omitted after nouns, as 
well as pronouns; thus, "At the bookseller's (shop)." 

490. In consequence of this ellipsis, there is sometimes an 
appearance of a double possessive", as, ^-This is a speech of the 
king's (speeches)." The meaning is, this speech is one of the 
king's speeches. In all such instances, the preposition governs the 
noun understood, and the noun understood governs the possessive. 

491. The two modes of expression, -a picture of the king," 
and ^^a picture of the king's," never mean the same thing. The 
noun understood in the latter case is always plural, and the idea 
is always that of possession. The phrase implies that this is one 
out of many pictures or other goods, and that they belong to the 
king. In the former expression, no intimation is given of a plu- 
rality of pictures, and the idea of possession is not necessarily, 
if ever, conveyed. 

492. In complex names, the sign of the possessive is put only 
after the last; thus, ^^' George Washington's farewell address," 
not " George's Washington's," &c. 

493. A similar u.sage occurs where a complex title consists of 
several words, some of which may be different parts of speech, 
and may have an independent construction of their own; thus, 
" The captain of the guard's horse." In parsing such a sentence, 
** of the guard" may be parsed first, separately, " guard" being 
in the objective. Then, " captain of the guard's" is parsed as one 

c. 489. What is remarked of the governing word ? What is the ellipsis 
in the phrase " at the alderman's" ? 490. Give an example of what is 
called the double possessive ? What is the real construction in all such 
cases ? Supply the ellipsis in the following sentences : This is a discovery 
of Sir Isaac Newton's. I have read a speech of Webster's. 491. Do the 
expressions " a picture of the king," and " a picture of the king's," ever 
convey the same idea ? What is the difference ? 

c. 492. What is the rule for the sign of the possessive in complex names ? 
493. What similar usage occurs in the case of complex titles ? How are 



complex name, in the possessive case, governed by horse. The 
'5 belongs not to - guard/' but to the whole expression. These 
complex names are sometimes written with a hyphen, as " com- 
mander-in-chief," and sometimes not. as in the case first quoted. 

494. On the same principle, when two or more nouns are con- 
nected in the possessirej expressing joint possession^ the sign 
of the possessive is put only after the last; as^ '4he king and 
queen's marriage." "King" here is to be parsed as the posses- 
sive, with the sign of the possessive omitted. 

495. When several words intervene between the nouns so con- 
nected, the sign is not omitted ; as^ " It was my father's, and also 
my brother's wish." Neither is it omitted when separate, in- 
stead of joint ix)ssession is expressed; as, "Washington's and 
Cornwallis's troops approached each other." 

496. When a noun in the possessive has one or more other 
nouns in apposition, the sign of the possessive is often omitted 
after the latter, especially if there is more than one of them, or 
if the governing noun is omitted ; as. " at Smith's, the booksel- 
ler and stationer." -^Bookseller" and "stationer" here should 
be parsed as in the possessive, with the sign of the possessive 

497. In like manner, the sign of the possessive may be omitted 
after a noun in apposition with a pronoun in the possessive ; as, 
" Here lies Us head, a youth to fortune and to fame unknown." 
" Youth," here is in the possessive (the sign being omitted), and 
is in apposition with " his." The meaning is " the head of him, 
a youth," &c. 

such complex titles to be parsed ? Parse the words italicised in the follow- 
ing sentence : They read the BisJiop of New York's letter. 

c. 494. What is the rule when two or more nouns are connected in the 
possessive, expressing joint possession ? How is - king" to be parsed in 
the sentence quoted ? Parse the words italicised in the following sen- 
tences : William and Mary's reign. James and John's book-case. 

r. 495. When is the sign of the possessive not omitted ? Correct the 
following sentences : William and Lucy's cloaks were lost. The Prince- 
ton and the Raritan's crews are both complete. 

c. 496. What is the rule when a noun in the possessive has one or more 
Bouns in apposition ? How should '* bookseller" and '' stationer" be parsed 
in the sentence quoted ? 497. What similar usage is noticed of the pro- 

SYNTAX. 125 

498. Care should be taken not to separate the possessive from 
the governing word by inserting explanatory clauses ; as, " She 
extolled the farmer's, as she called him, excellent understand- 
ing." It should be, " the excellent understanding of the farmer, 
as she called him." 

499. Certain compound pronouns in the possessive are some- 
times separated ; aSj " Whose house soever,^^ This, however^ is 
to be generally avoided. 

500. The possessive is sometimes governed by a participial 
clause, that is, a clause consisting of a participle and its adjuncts, 
which together make one substantive idea equivalent to a noun ; 
aSj " The cause of this person's dismissing his servant so hastily," 
not " of this person dismissing his servant/' &c. 

501. A noun or pronoun, put in apposition with 
another, agrees with it in case. 

502. A noun or pronoun is in apposition with another when it is added 
as an explanatory term ; as, Cicero, the orator ; or, when some word is re- 
peated for the sake of emphasis ; as, ** Cisterns, broken cisterns, that can 
hold no water." 

noun ? In the possessive 1 How is "youth" parsed in the sentence quoted ? 
Correct the following expressions : The box was sent to Burton's, the 
watchmaker's and jeweller's. These psalms are David's, the king's, priest's, 
and prophet's. Parse the words corrected. 

c. 498. What care should be taken in regard to the possessive and its 
governing word ? Correct the following : They scorned the infidel's, as 
they deemed him, profligate opinions. Follow Washington's, the father 
of his country, advice. 

c. 499. What exception is made in favour of compound pronouns? 

c. 500. What is remarked of a participial clause ? How should " per- 
son" be in the sentence quoted, and how is it parsed ? Correct the follow- 
ing : I remember it being done. Much depends on a pupil composing cor- 

a. 501. What is Rule VI. ? 502. When is a noun or pronoun put in ap- 
position with another ? 

a. How is " John" parsed in the sentence " James writes a letter to his 
brother JohnV 

Ans. ** John" is a noun proper, masc, 3d, per. sing., objective case, in ap- 
position with ** brother," according to Rule VI., which says, &c. 


503. The words in apposition may be in any case, nominative 
possessive, or objective. 

504. When a noun is in apposition with another in the posses- 
sive case, the sign of the possessive is often omitted (492 — 496 

505. A noun may be put in apposition to a whole sentence , 
as, " He promptly acceded to my request, an act which redound? 
greatly to his honour." " Act" is here nominative, in apposition 
with the whole of the preceding sentence. 

506. The personal pronouns are often used in apposition, ap- 
parently merely for the purpose of ascertaining the person of a 
noun ; as, " We, the people of the United States." 

507. W^hen several words form one proper name, as " Thomas 
Jefferson," these words are in apposition, but may be parsed to- 
gether as one complex noun. In forming the plural of such com- 
plex nouns, the sign is put only after the last ; as " The country 
has not had two Thomas Jefferson^." 

508. In like manner, when a proper name has a title prefixed, 
as " General Greene," " Dr. (Doctor) Rush," " Mr. (Master) Hen- 
ry," the words are in apposition, but may be parsed together as 
one complex noun. In forming the plural of such complex nouns. 

a. Parse the words italicised in the following sentences : Alexander, the 
coppersmith^ did me great harm. Harrisburg, the capital of Pennsylvania, 
lies on the east bank of the Susquehanna. Thompson, the author of the 
Seasons, is a delightful poet. 

a. Correct the following sentences; The knife was given to me by my 
brother James, he that was here last week. Mr. Dale, the carpenter, him 
whom you saw here yesterday, is dead. 

c. 503. In what case may words in apposition be ? 504. What is ob- 
served of nouns in apposition in the possessive case ? 505. With what 
may a noun or pronoun sometimes be in apposition ? How is " act" parsed 
in the sentence quoted ? 506. For what purpose are the personal pronouns 
sometimes used in apposition ? 

c. 507. When several words form one complex name, how are they to 
be parsed ? How is the plural of such complex names formed ? 508. 
When a proper name has a title prefixed, how are the words to be parsed ? 
What is remarked of the plural in such cases ? When is the last word 
only changed ? When is the title only changed ? Correct the following : 
The two Misses Beecher. The Doctor Burtons. 

SYNTAX. 127 

the usage is not very uniform. Generally, however, when the 
article and a numeral adjective are prefixed, the last word only 
is changed ; as, " The two Mr. Henrys." But when a numeral 
is not prefixed, the title only is changed ; as, " The Messrs Hen- 
ry," " The Misses Henry." 

509. One of the most frequent instances of apposition, is where 
the proper name of an object is appended to its common name ; 
as, " The river Delaware.''^ It is a peculiarity of the English 
language that the proper names of places^ when so appended, 
generally do not agree in case with the previous noun, but are 
put in the objective and governed by of ; as, " The city of Phila- 

510. The phrases " They love one another," " They love each 
other," &c.. afford instances of apposition that very frequently 
occur. In these examples " one" and " each" are in apposition 
with "they;" and "another" and "other" are in the objective, 
governed by love. The meaning is, " one loves another," " each 
loves the other." 

511. The verb to he has the same case after it as be- 
fore it. 

512. This rule applies also to many other intransitive verbs, and likewise 
to the passive voice of transitive verbs, as, lo become, to be named, to be 
called, &c. 

513. The noun or pronoun after the verb in such cases is really 
in apposition with the one before it, and might be so parsed. 

514. Sometimes a verb in the infinitive mood has a noun after 
it without any other noun before it; as. •• To be a good man^ is 
not so easy a thing as many people imagine." Here " man" 
may be parsed as used indefinitely after the verb to he. It is not 

c. 509. What very frequent instance of apposition is mentioned ? What 
is there remarkable in the expression " the city of Philadelphia ?" 510. 
What is observed of *' one another," " each other ?" &c. 

b. 511. What is the rule for the case after toi)e? 512. To what other 
verbs does the rule apply ? 513. What is the real construction of the noun 
or pronoun in such cases? Parse the words italicised in the following sen- 
tences : Knowledge is power. Godliness with contentment is great gain. 
He shall be called John. The senate caused Scylla to be proclaimed Dic- 


easy to say in what case the noun is in such sentences. The 
analogy of the Latin would seem to indicate the objective.— - 
Thus, " Not to know what happened in past years, is to be al- 
ways a child,'''' Latin^ " semper esse puen^m." In like manner, 
in English w^e may say, " Its being me^ need make no change in 
your determination." 


515. A Pronoun agrees with the noun for tvhich it 
stands, in gender, number, and person, 

516. When a pronoun stands for a noun of multitude, for two 
or more nouns connected by and, or for two or more nouns con- 
nected by or or tio?-. the number and person of the pronoun are 
determined by the same rules that have been applied to the verb. 
See437— 441, 444— 151. 

c. 514. What is observed of the infinitive with a noun after it? In what 
case is the noun in such instances? 

a. 515. What is Rule VII.? How do you parse "he" in the sentence 
" When John was at school, he wrote a letter to his father" ? 

Ans. — "He" is b. personal pronoun, 3d per. sing., masc, and agrees with 
*' John" for its antecedent, according to Rule VII., which says, &c. ; and 
is the nominative case, and nominative to " wrote," according to Rule I., 
which says, &c. N. B. — Rule VII. must be quoted in parsing personal 
pronouns as well as relatives ; and in parsing both classes, two sets of 
rules must be quoted, one relating to the gender, number, and person (Rule 
VJI.), the other relating to the case, which is subject to all the rules per- 
taining to the case of nouns. 

a. How do you parse " who" in the sentence *' John, vAo was at school, 
wrote a letter to his father" ? 

Ans. — "Who" is a relative pronoun, 3d person, sing., masc, and agrees 
with " John" for its antecedent, according to Rule VII., which says, &c. ; 
and is in the nominative case, and nominative to " was," according to Rule 
I., which says, &c. 

a. Parse the personal and relative pronouns in the following sentences ; 
He who is a stranger to industry, may possess wealth, but he cannot enjoy 
it. He only who is active and industrious, can experience real pleasure. 
Trust not him whose friendship is bought with gold. I received the letter 
which you wrote to me. 

a. Parse all the nouns, verbs, and prepositions in the foregoing sentences. 

c. 516. What rules are to be applied when a pronoun stands for a noua 

SYNTAX. 129 

517. A pronoun may sometimes represent an injfinitive mood 
or part of a sentence, in which case it is third person singular, 
neuter ; as^ '' He is very witty, but unfortunately^ he is aware 
of it:' 

Personal Pronouns. 

518. It is sometimes used indefinitely without reference to any 
particular antecedent ; as, " Come and trip it as you go," " It is 
I," ''/Mvashe," &c. (221). 

519. It is also used in reference to infants, and inferior ani- 
mals (130). 

520. The gender of a noun is sometimes changed by personi^ 
fication (131). In such instances, a similar change occurs in the 
gender of the pronoun. 

521. We frequently, and yon generally, are used to represent 
the singular (217). It is improper in such cases to change 
the construction during the progress of a sentence ; as, " Thou 
wast true to me in the day of trouble, and your kindness I can 
never forget." It should be either " thou" and " thine," or " you" 
and "your." 

Relative Pronouns. 

522. That is used for who or ivhich in the following cases : — 

1. After the superlative ; as, " It is the best that can be got." 

2. After same; as, " He is the same kind-hearted man that he used to be." 

3. After all, or any similar antecedent expressing a general meaning, 
limited by the following verb ; as, '' all that wealth e'er gave," " words that 

of multitude, for two or more nouns in the singular, &c. ? Correct the 
following sentences ; The multitude seek pleasure as its chief good (437 — 
438). The Board of Controllers have just published its report. If your 
rudeness and noise continue, it will effectually hinder you from gaining 
any benefit (444). A lampoon or a satire does not carry in them robbery 
or murder (448). 

c. 517. When a pronoim represents part of a sentence, in what person, 
number, and gender is it ? 

c. 518. What indefinite use of it is noted ? 519. Why is it sometimes 
used in reference to infants, &c. ? 520. How is the pronoun sometimes 
affected by personification? 521. What usage of we and you is noted? 
What impropriety sometimes occurs in the use of the second person ? 
Correct this sentence : Lay up in thy heart what you have now heard. 

c. 522. When is that used for who or which ? Correct the following sen- 


4. After who ; as, " who, that has seen anything of human nature, can 
believe it." 

5. After it used indefinitely (221) ; as, It was he that did it." 

6. After an antecedent consisting of two words, one requiring who, the 
other which ; as, " the jnan and the house that we saw yesterday." 

7. Whenever it is a matter of doubt whether who or which should be 

523. When the relative has two antecedents, of different per- 
sonSj one before and the other after the verb to be^ the relative 
agrees in person with the nearest ; as, ^' I am a man lolio com- 
mands you." Where a different meaning is intended, the rela- 
tive should be placed nearer the first antecedent; as, •- 1 who 
command you, am a man." 

524. The relative should be placed near its antecedent to pre- 
vent ambiguity; thus, "The hoy beat his companion, whom 
everybody believed incapable of doing mischief." should be " The 
hoyj tohom everybody believed incapable of doing mischief, beat 
his companion." 

525. Who is applied to persons ; which to inferior animals^ to 
things without life, to infants (130), to nouns of multitude com- 
posed of persons where unity of idea is expressed (438), and to 
persons in asking questions (237). 

N. B. — Which formerly was applied to persons as well as things; as, 
** Our Father, which art in heaven." 

lences : Solomon was the wisest man whom the world ever saw. It is 
the same picture which you saw before. All which beauty, all which 
wealth e'er gave. Who, who has any sense of religion, will argue thus. 
The lady and the lap-dog which we saw in the window. 

c. 523. What is the rule for the persov, when the relative has two ante- 
cedents of different persons ? 524. Where should the relative be placed ? 
Correct this sentence. The king dismissed his minister without any in- 
quiry, who had never before been guilty of so unjust an action. 

c. 525. To wliat is who applied ? }Vhich ? How was which formerly 
used ? Correct the following : The tiger is a beast of prey, who destroys 
without pity. This is the friend which T love. That is the vice whom I 
hate. TliC infant whom you see in the cradle. Who of those men came 
to his assistance ? 

c. 526. What is remarked of the omission of the relative ? Supply the 
relative in this sentence. I thank you for the kindness you show^ed me. 
527. Is the antecedent ever omitted ? Supply it in the sentence quoted ? 

SYNTAX. 131 

526. The relative is sometimes omitted ; as, " the letter (which) 
you wrote me on Saturday, came duly to hand." This is not 
allowable in grave composition^ and of doubtful propriety any- 
w here. 

527. The antecedent is frequently omitted ; as, " TVAo lives to 
nature, rarely can be poor." 

528. Whoever, whichever. &c. (231), include the antecedent 
in themselves ; Thus, *' whoever," means •' any one who," &c. 

529. What, in like manner, includes both relatives and ante- 
cedents, and may at the same time be both nominative and ob- 

580. What and somewhat are sometimes used in the sense of 
an adverb ; as, " somewhat better," ^' w^hat doth it profit a man ]" 
&c. These words may be parsed in such sentences, either as 
used adverbially, or by supplying the ellipsis. " In what respect 
doth it profit a man?" &c. 

531. Whichsoever, whatsoever^ &.C., are sometimes written as 
two w-ords with other words intervening ; as, " which side so- 
ever.'"' In parsing, the two parts of the word should be taken 
together as one word. 


532. An article belongs to the noun which it qualifies, 

c. 528. What is observed of the antecedent of " wherever," *' which- 
ever ?" &c. 529. What is observed of wJiat ? How do you parse " what" 
in the sentence " He reads what is written" ? 

Ans. — " What" is a compound relative, including both the antecedent 
and the relative, and is equivalent here to " that which." As " that," it is 
in the objective case, and governed by " reads," according to Rule IH., 
which says, &c. ; as " which," it is in the nominative case, and nominative 
to ** is written," according to Rule I., which says, &o. 

c. Parse " what" in the following sentences : Regard the quality, rather 
than the quantity of what you had. Choose what is most fit ; custom will 
make it most agreeable. 

c. 530. How are " what" and " somewhat" sometimes used ? 431. How 
are '* whichsoever" &c. sometimes written? How should they be parsed ? 

a. 532. What is Rule VHI. ? How do you parse a in the sentence " John 
writes a letter" ? 

Ans. — " A" is the indefinite article, and belongs to the noun " letter," 
according to Rule VHI., which says, &c. 


533. The noun is often understood ; as, " Turn neither to the 
right (hand), nor to the left (hand)." " Henry the Eighth (king 
of that name)." 

534. An adjective preceding the noun, must come between it 
and the article ; as. " a virtuous man," not " virtuous a man." 
Except all. such^ many, what^ both, and adjectives preceded by 
too. so, aSj how ; as^ " all the men," " such a sight," " too serious 
an undertaking." &c. 

535. When two or more adjectives connected belong to the 
same subject, the article is used only before the first ; as, " a red 
and white flag," i. e., one flag, partly red and partly white. But 
when the adjectives belong to different subjects, the article is re- 
peated before each ; as, " a red, and a white flag," i. e. two flags, 
one red, and one white. 

536. In like manner, in using the comparative with than^ if 
the nouns before and after ^^ than" both refer to the same subject, 
the article is used only before the first; as, "He is a better 
speaker than writer ;" but, if the nouns refer to different sub- 
jects, the article should be repeated before both ; as, " He is a 
better model than a politician (would be)." 

537. A or an is joined to nouns in the singular number only; 
as, " a man." The exceptions to this are apparent rather than 
real. Thus, " a few things" means a certain number of things, 
and not more ; " a thousand men" means one thousand of men, 
and not two, &c. The a may be considered either as belong- 
ing to the words " few," " thousand," &c., used as nouns in the 

c. 533. Is the noun ever understood ? Supply the noun in the following 
clauses : Glory in the highest. Charles the First. 534. What is remarked 
of the position of the article and adjective ? What words are excepted 
from this rule ? 

c. 535. What is the rule respecting the use of the article when two or 
more adjectives connected belong to the same subject ? When they be- 
long to different subjects ? What is the difference between " a red and 
white flag," and " a red and a white flag" 1 536. What is the rule in using 
the article after the comparative with than ? Correct the following sen- 
tences : Fire is a better servant than a master. He is a better poet than a 

537. To which number is a or an joined ? What is remarked of the 
exceptions to this rule ? What explanation is given of " a few things" ? 
" A thousand men" ? What two modes of parsing a are mentioned ?-^ 

SYNTAX. 133 

singular, and the word following governed by of understood ; or 
as belonging to the adjective, giving it a collective meaning. 
The latter is preferred. 

538. A marked difference of meaning is produced by the use 
or omission of a before few and little. " He has a little decen- 
cy" means he has at least some. " He has little decency" inti- 
mates a doubt whether he has any. 

539. A or an has sometimes the meaning of every ; as^ " twice 
a day." Such sentences are always elliptical, in or some other 
preposition being understood. 

540. A is often an abbreviation for some other short word, at, 
in, or, &c. (373) ; as " His greatness is a ripening." In such 
cases it is not an article but a preposition, and is to be parsed ac- 

541. The is used before comparatives and superlatives; as, 
" The more carefully you examine the book, the better you will 
like it ;" '* An estate, the largest in the city." Where these 
comparatives and superlatives are adjectives, the noun to which 
the article belongs can easily be supplied. Bat in the case of 
adverbs there does not seem to be any ellipsis of the noun. The 
article seems to qualify the adverb and belong to it. 

542. The is used before the antecedent of a restrictive clause ; 
as, " The men, who were absent, neglected their duty." 


543. An adjective belongs to the noun or pronoun 
which it qualifies. 

Which is preferred ? 538. What is the difference in meaning between "He 
has a little decency," and " he has little decency" ? 

c. 539. Has a or an ever the meaning of every ? Give an example and 
supply the ellipsis. 540. For what is a sometimes an abbreviation ? What 
part of speech is a in such sentences ? 

c. 541. Which article is used before comparatives and superlatives 1 — 
How is the article parsed when these comparatives and superlatives are 
adjectives ? When adverbs ? 542. Which article is used before restrictive 
clauses ? 

a. 543. What is Rule IX ? Parse " long," in the sentence, ** John writes 
a long letter." 



544. An adjective sometimes qualifies an infinitive mood or 
part of a sentence ; as •* To use profane language is both foolish 
and wicked." 

545. The infinitive mood and the participle are sometimes 
found with an adjective after them not qualifying any particular 
noun, but used indefinitely ; as, " To be good is the surest way 
of being liappif (514). " Good" here is to be parsed by saying 
that it is an adjective used indefinitely after the infinitive. In 
like manner, " happy" is used indefinitely after the participle. 

546. The noun is often omitted ; as, " The poor (persons) have 
claims upon the rich (persons)." In such cases, the adjective 
may be parsed either by supplying the ellipsis, or by saying that 
the adjective is used as a noun. The former is preferred. 

547. Adjectives that express number, agree in number with 
the noun or pronoun to which they belong ; as, " ten pounds," 
not " ten pound." 

548. Some nouns have a plural meaning with a singular form ; 
as, " Ten sail of the line" (439). In such instances the form 
is not changed. 

549. When two adjectives precede a noun, both expressing 
number, one of them may express the idea of unity, the other 
that of plurality ; as, " one thousand men," *' the first thousand 

Alts. — " Long" is an adjective used to qualify " letter" (178), in the posi- 
tive degree (long, longer, longest), and belongs to '* letter," according to 
Rule IX., which says, &c. N. B. — When the adjective is not capable of 
comparison, it should, in the early stages of parsing, be so stated. 

a. Parse the adjectives in the following sentences : A great reward has 
been offered for the detection of the crime. The best men are liable to 
occasional infirmities of temper. 

a. Parse all the other words in these sentences. 

c. 544. What does an adjective sometimes qualify ? What does it qualify 
in the following sentences ? To repine at the prosperity of others is des- 
picable. To be ever active in laudable pursuits is highly meritorious. 

c. 545. What is remarked of the indejinite use of adjectives ? How is 
the adjective to be parsed in such sentences 1 546. Is the noun ever omit- 
ted ? How is the adjective to be parsed in such cases ? 

c. 547. What is the rule for adjectives that express number ? Correct 
the following expression : There are six foot of water in the hold ? 548. 
What is observed of nouns used in the singular form with a plural mean- 

SYNTAX. 135 

men," &c. In these instances, the several things are considered 
in their aggregate capacity, as forming one whole. The rule of 
construction is, to make the noun plural, and put the singular ad- 
jective before the plural one ; as, " the first ten lines," not " the 
ten first lines." " Thousand," " hundred," &:c.; are sometimes 
parsed as nouns, of being understood after them. 

550. Many, by a peculiar idiom, is used before the singular 
with a prefixed ; as " many a flower." 

551. The comparative degree generally refers to two objects, 
the superlative to two or more ; as, " John is taller than James," 
" John is the tallest of his class." 

552. The comparative considers the object compared as belong- 
ing to different classes, the superlative as belonging to one class. 
Care should be taken therefore not to use any words implying a 
different state of things. Thus^ " Cicero was more eloquent than 
any orator of antiquity," implies that Cicero was not one of the 
orators of antiquity, that he belonged to a different class. The 
fault may be remedied by inserting " other." Again, " Gambling 
is, of all other vices, the most incurable." Strike out other. 

553. Double comparatives and superlatives are improper; as, 
" serener temper," not " more serener." 

554. Some adjectives (^203) express a quality incapable of in- 
crease or diminution, as chief, unusual^ &c. In such cases, the 
comparative and superlative terminations should not be used. 

555. Adjectives should not be used as adverbs. " He acted 
wiser than the rest" should be " more wisely. 

ing ? 549. When two adjectives precede a noun, one expressing unity, the 
other plurality, what is the rule of construction ? Correct this. The three 
last verses. 550. What peculiar idiom of " many" is noticed ? 

c. 551. To how many does the comp. refer? The sup. ? 552. How 
does the comp. consider the object as belonging ? The sup. ? What care 
should be taken ? Correct the following ; Chimborazo is the highest moun- 
tain of Europe. Spain at one time possessed a greater commerce than 
any nation in Europe. 553. What is observed of double comp. and sup. ? 
Correct : The tongue is like a race-horse, which runs the faster, the lesser 
weight it carries. 554. Correct : There is no more universal sentiment. 
Virtue confers the supremest dignity on man. 

c. 555. Correct. He v/rites elegant. She sings sweet. 556. What do 


556. Sometimes the adjective seems to qualify the verb ; as, 
" He stands firm." " he strikes hard/' " he drinks deep," " it tastes 
good," &c. The a,djective in these cases qualifies the verb dif- 
ferently from what the corresponding- adverb would, as any one 
may ascertain by substituting *' firmly," " deeply," &c. At the 
same time, as the verb connects these qualities with the preced- 
ing noun or pronoun, they must be considered and called adjec' 
lives J though used in an uncommon sense. 


557. An Adjective Pronoun belongs to the noun or 
pronoun which it qualifies, 

558. The PossessJves have gender, number, and person, and agree in 
these respects with the noun which they represent. Thus, " James writes 
to his sisters." " His" does not agree with " sisters" to which it belongs, 
but with ** James" which it represents. 

559. The Distributives and Demojistratives, on the contrary, admit only 
of number, and agree in this respect with the nouns to which they belong ; 
as, " This sort of books ;" not " Those sort." 

adjectives sometimes seem to qualify ? Give exam.ples. How must they 
nevertheless be considered and called, and why ? 

a. 557. What is Rule X. ? 558. What is remarked of the Possessives ? 
559. Of the Distributives and Demonstratives ? How do you parse '* this," 
in the sentence '* John wrote this letter" ? 

Ans. — ** This" is a demonstrative adjective pronoun, and belongs to "let- 
ter," according to Rule X., which says, &c. ; it is also in the singular num- 
ber and agrees with " letter," according to the note under Rule X., which 
says, " The distributives and demonstratives admit of number^ and agree in 
this respect with the nouns to which they belong." 

a. How do you parse " his" in the sentence " John wrote his letter" ? 

Ans. — " His" is a possessive adjective pronoun, and belongs to " letter,'' 
according to Rule X., which says, &c. ; it is also third person, sing., masc, 
and agrees with " John," according to the note under Rule X., which says, 
" The possessives have gender, number and person, and agree in these re- 
spects with the noun which they represent." 

a. Parse the adjective pronouns in the following sentences : Those men 
only are great, who are good. Few persons set a proper value on their 
time. Those men who despise the admonitions of their friends, deserve 
the mischiefs which their own obstinacy brings upon them. 

a. Parse all the other words in the foregoing sentences. 

SYNTAX. 1 37 

560. The distributives, each, every^ either, neither, are all 
singular ; of the demonstratives, this and that are singular, these 
and those plural. 

561. Care should be taken not to mistake the real number of 
the nouns. See articles 153, 154, 155. 

562. In contrast, that refers to the first mentioned, this to the 
last; as "Wealth and poverty are both temptations; that (wealth) 
tends to excite pride, this (poverty) discontentment." 

563. The personal pronoun should not be used for the adjec- 
tive ; as " those books," not " them books." 

564. Either is sometimes used improperly for each; as, " Na- 
•dab and Abihu took either of them his censer." Grammatically, 

this means that only one of them took a censer, whereas the 
meaning intended is that they both did so. It should be " each." 

565. The adjective pronouns, like adjectives, are often used as 
nouns, a noun being understood ; as, " Let each (man) do his 


566. A Participle belongs to the noun or pronoun 
which it qualifies, 

c. 560. What is remarked of the number of the distributives ? Of the 
demonstratives ? Correct the following sentences : Those sort of people 
fear nothing. Who broke this scissors ? 561. W^hat care should be taken ? 
Correct this sentence. He adhered strictly to his profession, and by those 
means gained success. 

c. 562. How are this and that used, in contrast ? Correct the following : 
Virtue and vice are as opposite to each other as light and darkness ; this 
ennobles the mind, that debases it. 

c. 563. What incorrect use of the personal pronoun is observed ? Cor- 
rect the following : Them kind of favours did real injury. 564. How is 
either sometimes used ? Correct the following : The king of Israel and 
the king of Judah sat either of them on his throne. 565. Are the adjective 
pronouns ever used without a noun ? Supply the ellipsis in the following 
sentences : Such as are diligent will be rewarded. Some are naturally 
timid, others are bold and active. Give to each his own. 

a. 566. What is Rule XL ? How do you parse " having written" in the 
sentence, " James, having written a letter, sent it to the Post-office" ? 



567. A participle has the construction of an adjective, inasmuch as it 
qualifies a noun and belongs to it. This noun is the subject of the partici- 
ple (424). It holds the same relation to the participle that the nominative 
does to a verb. The participle moreover, if it be transitive, may have not 
only a subject, but an object, vi^hich it governs in the objective case (455). 
Thus, ** James, having written his letter, sent it to the Post-ofBce." Here 
•• having viTitten," like an adjective, belongs to *' James" as its subject, and 
at the same time, as part of a transitive verb, retains its government of 
" letter." 

568. A participle is often used as a noun. When so used, it never has 
an adjective before it, but is subject to most of the other constructions of 
nouns. It is found both in the nominative and objective cases ; a.s " In 
writing letters, he soon became expert," •' Writing letters is easier than 
vi'riting compositions." In the first of these examples, " writing" is used 
as a noun in the objective case, and governed by in ; in the other it is also 
used as a noun, in the nominative case to is. It is also found like a noun 
governing another noun in the possessive case ; as, " Much depends on 
John's writing his letters rapidly." In all these instances, the participle, 
as a part of the verb, retains its government of the objective, and may 
even be qualified by an adverb. Nor is this double use of a word without 
analogy. The same thing occurs when the infinitive mood is used as a 
noun. Thus, *' To write letters is easy." Here '* to write" as a noun is 
nominative to *' is," and at the same time, as a verb, governs " letters." It 
is sometimes said in regard to the constructions, mentioned in the begin- 
ning of this paragraph, that the subject or object of the verb is not the par- 
ticiple, but the participle with its adjuncts, ^hus, in the first exam.ple, it 

Ans. — '* Having written" is the compound perfect participle, active, of 
the irregular transitive verb " to write" (write, wrote, written), and belongs 
to •* James," according to Rule XI, which says, &c. 

a. Parse, in like manner, the participles in the following sentences : — 
Knowledge, softened with good breeding, makes a man beloved and ad- 
mired. Having finished his speech, he descended from the platform. The 
youthful poet, while walking alone in the woods, fell into a reverie. Pre- 
cept has little influence, if not enforced by example. True honor, as de- 
fined by Cicero, is the concurrent approbation of good men. 

a. Parse all the words in the previous examples, except the conjunctions. 

d. 567. How far does the participle partake of the character of an ad- 
jective ? What relation exists between the participle and the noun to 
which it belongs ? What is observed of the participles of transitive verbs ? 
568. How is a participle often used ? What example is given of a partici- 
ple used as a noun, in the nominative case ? In the objective case ? What 
example of a participial noun governing the possessive case ? When the 
participle is thus used as a noun, what other office does it retain ? What 
analogous instance is given of a word being at the same time different parts 

SYNTAX* 139 

is not " writing" merely that is spoken of, but " writing letters." This is 
true. But it is equally true, when the subject is an infinitive, or even a 
noun. " To see the sun is pleasant." What is pleasant ? Not simply •' to 
see," but " to see the sun." In like manner, if we say, " The sight of the 
sun is pleasant," it is not simply " sight" which is pleasant, but " the sight 
of the sun." Still, no one, in this last example, would think of parsing all 
these five words together as the nominative to the verb. As an exercise in 
logic, it might be profitable enough. But as an exercise in grammar, most 
teachers would regard it as impracticable and useless. If, then, the noun, 
while the subject or object of the verb, may have its adjuncts and depend- 
ent words, in like manner, and for equal reasons, may the infinitive and par- 
ticiple, when used as nouns. 

569. Sometimes the participle, when used as a noun, has an article be- 
fore it. In that case, it loses almost entirely its participial character, and 
should not be followed by the objective case. Thus, " The learning lan- 
guages" should be, " The learning of languages." Hence the following 
practical rule -• 

570. When a participial noun has an article before it, 
it should have of after it ; as, " The learning of Greek/' 
not " the learning Greek/^ 

571. In such sentences the article and preposition should 
either both be used, or both omitted. The latter is by far the 
most common. 

572. When the article and preposition are both used, the 
meaning is generally the same as when they are both omitted, 

of speech ? What exception is taken to considering the participle in such 
instances as the subject or object of the verb? Show how this exception 
lies with equal force against the infinitive used as a noun. Against the 
noun itself? How are such refinements in parsing generally regarded? 
569. What is observed of the participial noun when it has an article 
before it ? 

d. Correct the following examples : Much depends on the pupil observing 
the rules. What is the reason of this person dismissing his servant so 
hastily? I remember it being done. 

h. 570. What is the rule respecting the use of the article and preposi- 
tion with a participial noun ? Correct the following : The learning any- 
thing speedily requires great application. By the exercising our faculties 
they are improved. By observing of these rules you may avoid mistakes. 
This was a betraying the trust reposed in him. 

c. 571. What usage is the most common m regard to articles and prepo- 
sitions with a participial noun ? 572. What is observed of the difference 
in meaning between the two forms ? 


Thus, " The learning of languages" means the same as " learn- 
ing languages." This, however, is not always the case ; as, 
*' He confessed the whole in the hearing of three witnesses, and 
the court spent an hour in hearing their deposition." It is per- 
haps impossible to give a rule which shall direct in all cases 
when to use, and when to omit the article and preposition. 

573. The Participles of to he^ to become^ to he named, &c. 
(511, 512, 513), may have a noun or pronoun after them in ap- 
position with the one before them ; as, " Thomas, being an apt 
scholar, won the favour of his teacher." 

574. The participle of such a verb, when used as a participial 
noun, may have the noun after it used indefinitely ; as, *' His 
being a good penman soon gained him employment." Here 
" penman" is not nominative to " gained," nor is it in apposition 
with anything understood before " being," but must be parsed as 
used in the nominative indefinite after the participle " being. ^^ 
For a similar consiruction of the infinitive mood, see article 514. 

575. In such cases, also, the participle itself may be used m- 
dcfinitely, that is, without belonging to any particular noun; as, 
" To remain for ever in one place, doing nothing, would be in- 
tolerable." *' Doing" here belongs to no noun, but is used inde- 
finitely after the infinitive, (514, 545). 

576. When the noun to which a participle belongs is in the 
nominative absolute, this fact should always be mentioned in 
parsing the participle. It should be observed, also, that the noun 
in absolute clauses is often omitted; as, "It is true, generally 
speaking," that is, " We speaking generally." 

c. 573. What is observed of the participles of the verbs to be, to hecome^ 
&c. ? 574. What is the construction of the noun after such a pariiciplef 
when the participle itself is used as a noua ? Parse the words italicised in 
the following sentences : His being called a wit, did not make him one. 
The atrocious crime of being a young man, I shall neither attempt to pal- 
liate nor deny. 575. How may the participle itself be used in such cases ? 
How is " doing" parsed in the sentence quoted ? 

c. 576. What should be attended to in parsing a participle which belongs 
to a noun in the nominative absolute ? What also is to be observed ? — 
Parse the words italicised in the following sentences. The sun rising, 
darkness flies away. But Satan, that seat soon failing, meets a vast vacuity. 
Thus repulsed, our final hope is flat despair (426). 

SYNTAX. 141 

577. As the past tense and the perfect participle are generally 
alike, care should be taken not to confound them where they are 
unlike : as, " He began to write," not " he begun''' 

578. In like manner, care should be taken not to use past 
tense instead of the perfect participle after the auxiliaries have 
and be ; as, " He has written his copy," not '• he has wrote''' 

579. The participle in ed is often improperly contracted by 
changing ed into t; as, "surpass," "distre^f," instead of "sur- 
passes/," " distressed^." Formerly, the short termination f, both 
in the past tense and the perfect participle, prevailed much more 
extensively than it now does. 


580. An Adverb belongs to the verb, adjective, or 
other adverb which it qualifies, 

581. Adverbs are for the most part placed before adjectives, 
after verbs, and frequently between the auxiliary and the verb ; 

c. bll. What care should be taken in the use of the past tense, and past 
participle ? 578. What part of the verb should be used after to have and 
to he ? 579. What improper contraction sometimes takes place ? Correct 
the following sentences : He soon begun to be weary of having nothing to 
do. He was greatly heated, and he drunk with avidity. I would have 
wrote a letter. He had mistook his true interest. The coat had no seam, 
but was wove throughout. The French language is spoke in every king- 
dom in Europe. He learnt his lesson perfectly. He snapt his whip. The 
storm has now past. 

a. 580. What is Rule XII ? How do you parse *' hastily" in the sen- 
tence, *' John wrote a letter hastily'' ? 

Ans. " Hastily" is an adverb, in the positive degree (hastily, more hastily, 
most hastily), and belongs to " wrote," according to Rule XII, which says, 
&c. N. B. When the adverb is not compared, it should be so stated, at 
least in the early stages of parsing. The more advanced pupil might be 
required to state to what class of adverbs the word belongs (361). 

a. Parse the adverbs in the following sentences : Economy, prudently 
conducted, is the safeguard of many virtues. Live temperately. She is 
particularly beautiful. The most cautious are frequently deceived. 

a. Parse all the other words in the foregoing sentences. 

c. 581. What is the rule for the position of adverbs? 582. Is this rule 
universal ? What is remarked in regard to the proper use of the adverb ? 


as, " He is very attentive," " She behaves loell,^^ " They are 
much esteemed." 

582. This rule is far from being universal in its application. It is in fact 
impossible to give any one rule which shall determine the position of the 
adverb in all circumstances. Its proper use adds very much to the beauty 
of a sentence, but beyond some general direction, like that in the preceding 
paragraph, it depends upon the principles of rhetoric rather than those of 

583. Adverbs should not be used as adjectives. Thus, "re- 
markaJZe well" should be ''remarkabZy well." N. B. There are 
some words which are both adverbs and adjectives. The rule, of 
course, does not apply to them. Thus, " no money," an adjec- 
tive; "no longer," an adverb. 

584. From should not be used before hence ^ thence^ and ivhence, 
because it is implied. Custom, however, has in a great measure 
sanctioned the violation of this rule. 

585. Hither, thither, and lohither, were formerly used after 
verbs of motion. They are now used only on solemn occasions. 
Thus, " come /lere," not '^ come hither.'^'' 

586. Where and ivhen, are often incorrectly used instead of 
the relative and its adjuncts ; as, " The situation where (in 
which) I found him," " Since when (which time) I have not 
seen him." 

587. While is not always an adverb. It is sometimes a noun, 
meaning simply time; as, "They lived here a long while f and 
sometimes a verb, meaning to spend the time ; as, " They sat 
down merely to while away the hoitr.''^ 

Correct the following sentences: We should not be overcome totally by 
present events. He unaffectedly and forcibly SDoke, and was heard atten- 
tively by the whole assembly. 

c. 583. Should adverbs be used as adjectives ? Correct the following : 
He lived in a manner agreeably to the dictates of reason and religion. 
They hoped for a soon and prosperous issue to the war. 

c. 584. Before what is from improper, and why ? What is said of cus- 
tom ? 585. What is remarked of hither, thither, and whither ? 586, How 
are where and when often used incorrectly? Correct the following: He 
drew up a paper, where he too frequently represented his own merit. He 
left Philadelphia last December, since when he has not been heard of. 

c. 587. What is remarked of the different uses of while ? What part of 

SYNTAX. 143 

588. How should never be used for that ; as, " He said how 
he would do it." It should be " that." 

589. No never qualifies a verb. Hence, when there is an 
ellipsis of the verb, no is sometimes incorrectly used instead of 
not ; as, " Will you walk or no .^" It should be " not," as will 
be seen by supplying the ellipsis. Thus, " Will you go, or (will 
you) not (go)]" 

N. B. — Nay, no, and yea, yes, expressing simply affirmation and nega- 
tion, contain in themselves a complete sense, and do not seem to belong to 
any verb. 

590. Two negatives in the same sentence are improper, unless 
they are intended to affirm. Thus, " I cannot by no means allow 
it," should be, I can by no means allow it," or, " I cannot by any 
means allow it." 

591. Sometimes, when one of the negatives (such as dis, in, 
un, 1772, &c.) is joined to another word, the two negatives form a 
pleasing and delicate mode of affirming ; as, "His language, 
though simple, is not melegant/' that is, " It is elegant." 

592. Never is often used incorrectly for ever ; as, " If I make 
my hands never so clean." It should be, " ever so clean." 


593. The Infinitive Mood is governed hy the vei^h, 

adjective^ or noun on which it depends. 

speech is wMle in each of the following sentences ? It is not worth your 
while. Leave me a while. While away the time till I return. Sit thou 
here while I go yonder. 

c. 588. What improper use of how is noted ? 589. What is remarked of 
no ? What incorrect use of it is noted ? Correct this sentence : He did 
not say whether his father would consent or no. What is observed o£nay, 
no, and yea, yes ? 

c. 590. What is the rule in regard to two negatives? 591. When is the 
use of double negatives proper ? 592. What incorrect use of never is 
noted? Correct the following : He will never be no taller. They could 
not travel no farther. Covet neither riches, nor honours, nor no such per- 
ishing things. Ask me never so much dowry. 

a. 593. What is Rule XIII. ? How do you parse " to write" in the sen- 
tence, ** James tried to write a letter" ? 


594. The preposition to, which is used in rnaking the form called the in 
finitive mood, and which is generally called the sign of the infinitive mood 
is not to be parsed by itself, but with the verb. There seems to be no more 
incongruity in thus combining a verb and a preposition, than in combining 
an adverb and a preposition; as, "at once" (476), or in combining a verb 
and its auxiliary (283 — 285). Such combinations are in fact among the 
most common contrivances of language. 

595. To, the sign of the infinitive, is omitted after the verbs 
hid. dare. need, make^ see. hear, feel^ let^ and some others ; as, 
" I saw him (to) do it." In the passive voice of these verbs, how- 
ever, the to is generally expressed; as, "he was seen to do it." 

596. Formerly the verb in the infinitive was preceded not only 
by to, but also by for ; as. " What went ye out for to see." 
This is now entirely disused. 

597. The infinitive seems sometimes to depend upon other 
parts of speech, besides those enumerated in the rule. Thus, 
** Be so good as (conjunction) to read this letter." In such cases, 
some grammarians parse the infinitive as governed by the word 
on which it seems to depend ; others suppose the sentence to be 
elliptical. Thus. " Be so good as (you must be, in order) to read 
this letter." 

Arts. — " To write" is a regular transitive verb, in the active voice, infini- 
tive mood, present tense, and governed by " tried,'' according to Rule XIII., 
which says, &c. 

a. Parse, in like manner, the infinitives in the following sentences: A 
good man loves to do good. The}' have a wish to learn. He has written 
some things hard to be understood. The desire to be rich is one of the 
strongest of human desires. A man eager to learn the truth is not apt to 
fall into error. She is worthy to be loved. 

a. Parse all the other words in the foregoing sentences. 

d. 594. What is remarked of ^o in connection with the infinitive ? How 
should it be parsed ? What analogy is there for such a combination ? 

c. 595- After what verbs is to omitted as the sign of the infinitive ? Cor- 
rect the following sentences. They need not to call her. I dare not to pro- 
ceed so hastily. He bade me to go home. It is the difference of their con- 
duct which makes us to approve the one, and to reject the other. He was 
seen write the letter. 

c. 596. What is remarked o^ for before the infinitive? 597. On what 
does the infinitive seem sometimes to depend? How is it parsed in such 
cases ? 598. What is said of the infinitive absolute? What other mode of 
explaining this construction ? 599. What is observed of the infinitive used 

SYNTAX. 145 

598. The infinitive is sometimes used absolutely^ that is, with- 
out dependence upon any other word ; as, " to speak plainly, I 
do not entirely approve your conduct." This construction also 
is explained by an ellipsis ; as, " {in order) to speak plainly," &c. 

599. The infinitive is very frequently used as a noun, both in 
the nominative and objective cases; as, " To play is pleasant," 
" Boys love to play" (421, 436, 458). 

600. Tense of the infinitive. — Whenever the action or 
event signified by the infinitive, is contemporary or future with 
respect to the verb on which it depends, the present tense of the 
infinitive is required. Hence, verbs expressive of hope, desire, 
intention, or command, must invariably be followed by the pre- 
sent, and not the perfect infinitive. Thus, " I expected to have 
found him," should be, " I expected to find him," 


601. A CONJUNCTION connects the words or sentences 
between which it stands, 

602. There is sometimes an ellipsis of one of the words or 
sentences, giving an appearance of a conjunction not truly con- 
nective ; as, " That John has written his letter, is easily proved." 

as a noun ? Parse the infinitives in the follov/ing sentences : To be carnally 
minded is death. To live righteously, soberly, and godly, is required of all 
men. To be temperate in eating and drinking, to use exercise in the open 
air, and to preserve the mind from tumultuous emotions, are the best pre- 
servatives of health (436). 

r. 600. What is the rule for the tense of the infinitive ? Correct this 
sentence: He intended to have written. 

a. 601. What is Rule XIV. ? How do you parse ''and'' in the sentence, 
"James and John are brothers" ? 

Ans. — " And" is a copulative conjunction (366), and connects "James" 
and "John," according to Rule XIV, which says, &c. 

a. Parse, in like manner, all the conjunctions in the following sentences: 
Forget the faults of others, and remember your own. Study universal rec- 
titude, and cherish rehgious hope. Practise humility, and reject everything 
in dress, carriage, or conversation, which has any appearance of pride. If 
ye do these things, ye shall never fall. 

a. Parse all the other words in the foregoing sentences. 

c. 602. Are all conjunctions truly connective ? How are the apparent 



Here " that" seems simply to introduce a clause which is the 
subject of the verb. But by supplying the ellipsis, " (the fact) 
that John has written, &c.j" the true connective character of the 
conjunction appears. 

608. Words and clauses are "often connected not by a single 
conjunction, but by two conjunctions or a conjunction and an 
adverb, corresponding to each other; as^ "Give me neither 
poverty nor riches." 

604. The following is a list of the principal conjunctions that , 
have a corresponding conjunction or adverb : 

Neither, nor ; as, It is neither cold nor hot. 

Either, or ; as, Either she or her sister must go. 

Whether, or ; as, Whether he will do it or not, I cannot say. 

Though, yet; as, Though he was rich, yet for our sakes, &c. 

If, then ; as, If he speaks true, then you speak false. 

Both, and ; as, I am debtor both to the Greeks, and to the Bar- 

Not only, hut also; as, Not only his character, but also his life was 

at stake. 

— as; as, My land is as good as yours. 

— -so; as, As the stars, so shall thy seed be. 
-as; He is not so wise as his brother. 

— that ; I am so weak that I cannot walk. 

605. The comparative degree and the words otJier^ rather^ 
and else, require than ; as, " John is greater than James." 

606. After than there is almost always an ellipsis of several words. In 
supplying these words, the latter clause must be made analogous to the 

exceptions explained ? 603. What is remarked of corresponding conjunc- 
tions and adverbs ? 604. To what does neither correspond ? Either ? 
Whether? Though? If? Both? Not only ? As? So? Correct the fol- 
lowing sentences ; It is neither cold or hot. Neither despise the poor, or 
envy the rich. Though he slay me, so will I trust him. So as thy days, 
so shall thy strength be. He was as angry as he could not speak. I must 
be so candid to own, that I have been mistaken. 

c. 605. When is than required ? 606. What generally takes place after 
than ? How is the ellipsis to be supplied ? What is the only exception to 
this rule ? How is whom to be parsed in the sentence " than whom," &c. ? 
Correct the following sentences : He has little more of the scholar besides 
the name. They had no sooner risen but they applied themselves to their 
fitudies. Those savage people seemed to have no other element but war. 




SYNTAX. 147 

preceding; as, "John has written more than James (has written).'' The 
only exception to this is in the use of the relative toho, which sometimes 
becomes whom, where the corresponding clause requires the nominative; 
as, " Than v;hom, Satan except, none liigher sat." If the personal pro- 
noun be substituted for the relative, it would be in the nominative case; 
thus, "none sat higher than he (did)." The construction of the relative in 
such cases seems to be a well established usage of the language. In such 
a sentence I would not call the conjunction a preposition, but in parsing 
the relative I would say, that "than is sometimes followed by whom, even 
when the corresponding clause requires the nominative" 

607. Much difference of opinion exists respecting the true nature of the 
word as, many grammarians of high authority calling it in certain circum- 
stances a relative pronoun, equivalent to who or which. Others again (and 
the author reckons himself in the number) prefer to consider it in such 
sentences a conjunction, and explain the construction by ellipsis. Al- 
though it is difficult in all cases to supply an ellipsis which shall be per- 
fectly satisfactory, yet the difficulty seems less than that of considering as 
a pronoun. Thus, "Shun such as (those are, who) are vicious," "To as 
many as (are those, who) received him." The ellipsis is often that of the 
indefinite {^(221,518). Thus, " A.-? (it) concerns me," ''As (it) regards 
me," "As (it) appears," " As (it) follows." The usage is not entirely uni- 
form in regard to the verb "follows," In giving a specification of par- 
ticulars, almost all good writers use the phrase " as follows." Still there 
are some writers of high authority, who make the verb plural when the 
antecedent word is so; as, "The words were as follow." " As follows," 
however, is far more common, the indefinite it being understood. Some- 
times, as is preceded by such, or some other definite antecedent, limiting the 
assertion to a part of a certain class of objects, and requiring the same de- 
finite limitation in the succeeding clause. In this case, it is not proper to 
supply the ellipsis by the indefinite it, but by a word corresponding to the 
one used in the correlative clause. Hence, if the antecedent is plural, the 
word to be supplied is plural, and the verb must be so too. Thus, " Such 
(men) as (those who) foWow a profession," "Such of his censures only, as 
(those which) concern my friend." 

608. Conjunctions generally connect the same moods and 

Wed. 607. What two opinions exist respecting «s ? What explanation of 
" as" is given in the sentence, " shun such as are vicious" ? " To as many 
as received him" ? What is the ellipsis in the phrase " as concerns 
me," &c. ? What is remarked of the usage concerning the verb " follows" ? 
When is it not proper to supply the ellipsis by the indefinite it ? How do 
you supply the ellipsis in these sentences ; " Such as follow a profession"? 
" Such of his censures only, as concern my friend." 
c. 608. What do conjunctions generally connect? Correct the following 


tenses of verbs, and the same cases of nouns and pronouns ; as, 
"He reads and writes well." 

609. When conjunctions connect verbs in the same mood and tense, the 
nominative is generally given only once ; but when the verbs connected 
are in different moods or tenses, the nominative should be repeated before 
each; as, **He may return, but Ae will not remain." The nominative is 
also often repeated when, in the progress of the sentence, we pass from 
the positive form of expression to the negative, or the contrary, or when a 
contrast is made; "Though I admire him greatly, yet I do not love him," 
" Though he was rich, yet he became poor," &c. 

Subjunctive Mood, 

6^10. If] though, unless, except^ whether^ &c., when followed 
by the subjunctive, expressing merely doubt or contingency, re- 
quire the regular form (348). Thus, " If thou livest virtuously, 
thou art happy." " Though he seejns to be simple and artless, he 
has deceived us," *' Unless he means what he says, he is doubly 
faithless," &c. 

611. If. though, unless, except^ whether, &c., when followed 
by the subjunctive present^ expressing not only doubt or con- 
tingency^ but in the present tense expressing future time, re- 
quire the subjunctive form. Thus, " If he continue impenitent, 
he will suffer," " Though he fall, he shall not be utterly cast 
down," " Unless he study more closely, he will never be learned," 
&c. In all these cases, the verb is in the present tense, but ex- 
presses future time. In all probability, this form of the present 
is merely an abbreviation for " should continue," " should fall," 

sentences : He or me must go. Neither he nor her can attend. Anger 
glances into the heart of a wise man, but will rest only in the bosom of 
fools. If he understands the subject and attend to it, he can scarcely fail 
of success. To profess regard, and acting differently, mark a base mind. 

d. 609. What is remarked of the nominative when the verbs connected 
are in the same mood and tense? When they are in different tenses? In 
what other cases is the nominative omitted ? Correct the following 
sentences : Rank may confer influence, but will not necessarily produce 
virtue. She was proud, though now humble. He is not rich, but is re- 

c. 610. What are the conjimctions usually connected with the subjunc- 
tive mood? When is the regular form required? 611. When does thf 

SYNTAX. 149 

612. i/5 though, unless^ except^ whether ^ &c., when followed 
by the past subjunctive of the passive voice or of the verb to be, 
and expressing not merely doubt or contingency, but in the past 
tense expressing present time, require the subjunctive form of 
the mood; as, "If he were here^ he would do it immediately," 
" If he were less admired, he would be more beloved." The 
past subjunctive, used to express past time^ is always in the 
regular form ; as, " If he was present yesterday and did as he is 
said to have done, he lacked common humanity." It is to be 
observed that all verbs have this double meaning in the past 
subjunctive, but the doable form seems to occur nowhere with 
certainty, except in the passive voice and the verb to be. 

613. In like manner, the form of the past subjunctive made by 
omitting the conjunction, and transposing the verb and nomina- 
tive (337), seems always to have a present signification, but not 
to assume the subjunctive form, except in the passive voice and 
the verb to be. Thus, " Didst thou know what is in store for 
thee," *' Were he now here to tell the tale," " Were he ad- 
mired less than he is," &c. 

614. Lest and that, following the imperative, require the sub- 
junctive form ; as, " Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty," 
" Take heed that thou speak not to Jacob, either good or bad." 

'present require the subjunctive form ? Of what does this form appear to be 
an abbreviation? 612. When does the past subjunctive require the sub- 
junctive form? What form is used when the past subjunctive expresses 
past time ? How extensive is this usage in regard to a double meaning of 
the past subjunctive ? In what words only does the double form appear ? 
633. What is remarked of a certain special way of forming the subjunc- 
tive ? 614. What is the rule respecting lest and that ? 

c. 610 — 614. Correct the following sentences : If a man smites his 
servant, and he die, he shall surely be put to death. If he acquires riches, 
they will corrupt his mind. Though he be high, he hath respect to the 
lowly. If thou live virtuously, thou are happy. Despise not any condition, 
lest it happens to be thine own. Take care that thou breakest not any of 
the established rules. 




615. An Interjection has no dependence upon other 

616. Sometimes interjections have the appearance of govern- 
ing the objective case ; as, " ah me !" But such sentences are 
always elliptical, some verb or preposition being understood ; as, 
" ah ! (pity) me." 

a. 615. What is Rule XV.? How do you parse " alas" in the sentence, 
" Alas! mother, I am sick" ? 

Ans. "Alas!" is an interjection, and is not dependent upon any other 
word, according to Rule XV., which says, &c. 

c. 616. What do interjections sometimes appear to govern ? How are 
such sentences explained ? 



I. John writes pretty. 2. I shall never do so no more. 3. The 
train of our ideas are often interrupted. 4. Was you present at 
the last meeting? 5. He dare not act otherwise than he does. 
6. Him whom they seek is in the house. 7. George or I is the 
person. 8. They or he is much to be blamed. 9. The troop 
consist of fifty men. 10. Those set of books was a valuable 

II. A pillar sixty foot high. 12. His conduct evinced the 
most extreme vanity. 13. These trees are remarkable tall. 
14. He acted bolder than was expected. 15. This is he who I 
gave the book to. 16. From w^hence came they 3 17. Who do 
you lodge with now? 18. H^e was born at London, but he died 
in Bath. 19. If he be sincere I am satisfied. 20. Her father 
ind her w^ere at church. 

SYNTAX. 151 

21. The master requested him and T to read more distinctly. 
22. It is no more but his due. 23. Flatterers flatter as long, and 
no longer than they have expectations of gain. 24. John told 
the same story as you told. 25. This is the largest tree which 
I have ever seen. 26. Let he and I read the next chapter. 
27. Those sort of dealings are unjust. 28. David the son of 
Jesse was the youngest of his brothers. 29. You was very kind 
to him, he said. 30. Well, says I, what does thou think of him 
now 1 

31. James is one of those boys that was kept in at school, for 
bad behaviour. 32. Thou, James, did deny the deed. 33. Nei- 
ther good nor evil come of themselves. 34. We need not to be 
afraid. 35. He expected to have gained more by the bargain. 
36. You should drink plenty of goat milk. 37. It was him who 
spoke first. 38. Is it me that you mean? 39. Who did you 
buy your grammar from 1 40. If one takes a wrong method at 
first setting out, it will lead them astray. 

41. Neither man nor woman were present. 42. I am more 
taller than you. 43. She is the same lady who sang so sweetly. 
44. After the most straitest sect of our religion, I lived a Phari- 
see. 45. There w^as more sophists than one. 46. If a person 
have lived twenty or thirty years, he should have some expe- 
rience. 47. If this were his meaning, the prediction has failed. 
48. Fidelity and truth is the foundation of all justice. 49. And 
when they had lifl up their eyes, they saw no man save Jesus 
only. 50. Strive not with a man without cause, if he have done 
thee no harm. 

51. I wrote to, and cautioned the captain against it. 52. The 
girl her book is torn in pieces. 53. It is not me who he is in 
love with. 54. He which commands himself, commands the whole 
world. 55. Nothing is more lovelier than virtue. 56. The peo- 
ples happiness is the statesmans honour. 57. Changed to a 
worscr shape thou canst not be. 58. I have drunk no spirituous 
liquors this six years. 59. He is taller than me, but I am 
stronger than him. 60. Solid peace and contentment consists 
neither in beauty or riches, but in the favour of God. 

61. After who is the King of Israel come out? 62. The reci- 
procations of love and friendship between he and I, have been 


many and sincere. 63. Abuse of mercies ripen us for judg- 
ment. 64. Peter and John is not at school to-day. 65. Three 
of them was taken into custody. 66. To study diligently, and ' 
behave genteelly, is commendable. 67. The enemies who we 
have most to fear are those of our own hearts. 68. Suppose life 
never so long, fresh accessions of knowledge may still be made. 
69. Surely thou who reads so much in the Bible, can tell me 2 
what became of Elijah. 70. Neither the master nor the scholars 1 
is reading. i 

71. Trust not him, whom, you know, is dishonest. 72. T love| 
no interests but that of truth and virtue. 73. Every imagination 
of the thoughts of Vfte heart are evil continually. 74. No one 
can be blamefl for taking due care of their health. 75. They 
crucified him, and two others with him, on either side one, and 
Jesus in the midst. 76. I have read Popes Homer, and Dry- 
dens Virgil. 77. He that is diligent you should commend. 

78. There was an earthquake which made the earth to tremble. 

79. He was very much made on at school. 80. Though he 
were a son, yet learned he obedience by the things which he 

81. If he is alone tell him the news; but if there is anybody 
with him, do not tell him. 82. They ride faster than us. 
83. Though the measure be mysterious, it is worthy of atten- 
tion. 84. If he does but approve my endeavours, it will be an 
ample reward. 85. Was it him who came last? Yes, it was 
him. 86. I shall take care that no one shall suffer no injury. 
87. Every man should act suitable to his character and station 
in life. 88. His arguments were exceeding clear. 89. I only 
spoke three words on that subject. 90. The ant and the bee 
sets a good example before dronish boys. 

91. Evil communications corrupts good manners. 92. Hanni- 
bal was one of the greatest generals whom the world ever saw. 
93. The middle station of life seems to be the most advantage- 
ously situated for gaining of wisdom. 94. These are the rules 
of grammar, by the observing which you may avoid mistakes. 
95. The king conferred on him the title of a duke. 96. My 
exercises are not well wrote, I do not hold my pen well. 
97. Grammar teaches us to speak proper. 98. She accused her 

SYNTAX. 153 

companion for having betrayed her. 99. I will not dissent with 
her. 100. Who shall I give it to ] 

101. Who are you looking for 1 102. That is a book which 
I am much pleased with. 103. That picture of the emperor's is 
a very exact resemblance of him. 104. Every thing that we 
her,e enjoy, change, decay, and come to an end. 105. It is not 
him they blame so much. 106. No people has more faults than 
they that pretend to have none. 107. The laws of Draco is said 
to have been wrote with blood. 108. It is so clear, or so ob- 
vious, as I need not explain it. 109. She taught him and I to 
read. 110. The greater a bad man's accomplishments are, the 
more dangerous he is to society, and the more less fit for a com- 

111. Each has their own faults, and every one should endea- 
vour to correct their own. 112. Let your promises be few, and 
such that you can perform. 113. His being at enmity with 
Ceesar and Antony were the cause of perpetual discord. 114. 
Their being forced to their books in an age at enmity with all 
restraint, have been the reason why many have hated books all 
their lives. 115. Do not despise the state of the poor, lest it be- 
comes your ow^n condition. 116. It was his duty to have inter- 
posed his authority in an affair of so much importance. 117. He 
spent his whole life in the doing good. 118. Every gentleman 
who frequented the house, and conversed with the erectors of 
this occasional club, were invited to pass an evening when they 
thought fit. 119. The winter has not been so severe as we ex- 
pected it to have been. 120. A lampoon, or a satire, does not 
carry in them robbery or murder. 

121. She and you were not mistaken in her conjectures. 
122. My sister and L as well as my brother, are employed in 
their respective occupations. 123. He repents him of that indis- 
creet action. 124. It was me. and not him. that WTote it. 125. 
Art thou him 1 126. 1 am a man who approves of w^holesome 
discipline, and who recommend it to others ; but I am not a per- 
son who promotes severity, or who object to mild and generous 
treatment. 127. Prosperity, as truly asserted by Seneca, it very 
much obstructs the knowledge of ourselves. 128. To do to 
others as we would that they should do to us, it is our duty. 


129. This grammar was purchased at Ogle's the bookseller's. 

130. The council was not unanimous. 
131. Who spilt the ink upon the table] Him. 132. Who 

lost this book] Me. 133. Whose pen is this] Johns. 134. 
There is in fact no impersonal verbs in any language. 135. A 
man may see a metaphor or an allegory in a picture, as well as 
read them in a description. 136. I had no sooner placed her at 
my right hand, by the fire, but she opened to me the reason of 
• her visit. 137. A prudent wife, she shall be blessed. 138. The 
house you speak of, it cost me five hundred pounds. 139. Not j| 
only the counsel's and attorney's, but the judge's opinion also g 
favoured his cause. 140. It was the men's, women's, and chil- 
dren's lot, to sufier great calamities. 

141. This palace has been the grand Sultan's Mahomet's. 
142. They did not every man cast away the abomination of their 
eyes. 143. Whose works are these ] They are Cicero, the most , 
eloquent of men's. 144. The mighty rivals are now at length II 
agreed. 145. The time of William making the experiment, at 
length arrived. 146. If we alter the situation of any of th^e 
words, we shall presently be sensible of the melody sufl^ering. 

147. This picture of the king's does not much resemble him. 

148. These pictures of the king were sent to him from Italy. 149. 
I offer observations, that a long and chequered pilgrimage have 
enabled me to make on man. 150. Clelia is a vain woman, 
whom, if we do not flatter, she will be disgusted. 

151. The orators did not forget to enlarge themselves on so 
popular a subject. 152. He acted conformable w^ith his instruc- 
tions, and cannot be censured justly. 153. No person could 
speak stronger on this subject, nor behave nobler, than our young 
advocate, for the cause of toleration. 154. They were studious 
to ingratiate with those who it was dishonourable to favour, i 
155. The house framed a remonstrance, where they spoke with 
great freedom of the king's prerogative. 156. Neither flatter or 
contemn the rich or the great. 157. Many would exchange 
gladly their honours, beauty, and riches, for that more quiet and 
humbler station, which thou art now dissatisfied with. 158.' 
High hopes, and florid views, is a great enemy to tranquillity. 


SYNTAX. 155 

159. Many persons will not believe but what they are free from 
prejudices. 160. I will lay me down in peace, and take my rest. 

161. This word I have only found in Spencer. 162. The king 
being apprized of the conspiracy, he fled from Jerusalem. 163. 
A too great variety of studies dissipate and weaken the mind. 
164. James was resolved to not indulge himself in such a cruel 
amusement. 165. They admired the countryman's, as they 
called him, candour and uprightness. 166. The pleasure or 
pain of one passion diiier from those of another. 167. The 
court of Spain, who gave the order, were not aware of the con- 
sequences. 163. There Vvas much spoke and wrote on each side 
of the question, but I have chose to suspend my decision. 169. 
Religion raises men above themselves; irreligion sinks them be- 
neath the brutes; that hinds them down to a poor pitiable speck 
of perishable earth; this opens for them a prospect to the skies. 
170. Temperance and exercise, howsoever little they may be 
regarded, they are the best means of preserving health. 

171. To despise others on account of their poverty, or to value 
ourselves for our wealth, are dispositions highly culpable. 172. 
As his misfortunes Vvere the fruit of his own obstinacy, a few 
persons pitied him. 173. And they were judged every man ac- 
cording to their works. 174. Riches is the bane of human hap- 
piness., 175. When Garrick appeared, Peter was for some time 
in doubt whether it could be him or not. 176. The company 
was very numerous. 177. Shall the throne of iniquity have fel- 
lowship with thee, which frameth mischief by a law] 178. Nor 
let no comforter delight my ear. 179. They were obliged to 
contribute more than us. 180. The Barons had little more to 
rely on, besides the power of their families. 

181. The sewers must be kept so clear, as the water may run 
away. 182. Such among us who follow that profession. 183. 
No body is so sanguine to hope for it. 184. She behaved un- 
kinder than I expected. 185. Agreeable to your request I send 
this letter. 186. She is exceeding fair. 187. Thomas is not as 
docile as his sister. 188. There was no other book but this. 
189. He died by a fever. 190. My sister and I waited till they 
vvere called. 

191. The friends and amusements which he preferred cor- 


rupted his morals. 192. Henry, though at first he showed an 
unwillingness, yet afterwards he granted his request. 193. Him 
and her live very happily together. 194. She invited Jane and 
I to see her new dress. 195. She uttered such cries that pierced 
the heart of every one who heard them. 196. Maria is not as 
clever as her sister Ann. 197. Though he promises ever so 
solemnly, I will not believe him. 198. The full moon was no 
sooner up, in all its brightness, but he opened to them the gate 
of paradise. 199. It rendered the progress very slow of the new 
invention. 200. This book is Thomas', that is James'. 

201. Who, who has the judgment of a man, would have drawn 
such an inference ] 202. George was the most diligent scholar 
whom I ever knew. 203. I have observed some children to use 
deceit. 204. He durst not to displease his master. 205. The 
hopeless delinquents might, each in their turn, adopt the expos- 
tulatory language of Job. 206. Several of our English words, 
some centuries ago, had different meanings to those they have 
now. 207. With this booty, he made off to a distant part of the 
country, where he had reason to believe that neither he nor his 
master were known. 208. I have been at Philadelphia. 209. 
Which of the two masters, says Seneca, shall we most esteem ] 
He who strives to correct his scholars by prudent advice and 
motives of honour, or another who will lash them severely for not 
repeating their lessons as they ought ! 210. But she always be- 
haved with great severity to her maids ; and if any of them were 
negligent of their duty, or made a slip in their conduct, nothing 
would serve her but burying the poor girls alive. 

211. They that honour me, I will honour. 212. For the poor 
always ye have with you. 213. The first Christians of the gen- 
tile world made a simple and entire transition from a state as bad, 
if not worse, than that of entire ignorance, to the Christianity of 
the New Testament. 214. The Duke had not behaved with 
that loyalty as was expected. 215. Milton seems to have been 
well acquainted with his own genius, and to know w^iat it was 
that nature had bestowed upon him more bountifully than upon 
others. 216. He only promised me a loan of the book for two ' 
days. 217. I was once thinking to have written a poem. 218. 
A very slow child will often be found to get lessons by heart as 


SYNTAX. 157 

soon as, nay, somelimes sooner, than one who is ten times as 
intelligent. 219. It is then from a cultivation of the perceptive 
faculties, that we only can attain those powers of conception 
which are essential to taste. 220. No man is fit for free conver- 
sation for the inquiry after truth, if he be exceedingly reserved ; 
if he be haughty and proud of his knowledge ; if he be positive 
and dogmatical in his opinions; if he be one who always affects 
to outshine all the company; if he be fretful and peevish; if he 
affect wit, and is full of puns, or quirks, or quibbles. 

221. Conversation is the business, and let every one that please 
add their opmion freely. 222. There are many more shining 
qualities in the mind of man, but there is none so useful as dis- 
cretion. 223. Frequent commission of crimes harden his heart. 
224. In our earliest youth the contagion of manners are observ- 
able. 225. The pyramids of Egypt has stood more than three 
thousand years. 226. A few pangs of conscience now and then 
interrupts his pleasure, and whispers to him that he once had 
better thoughts. 227. There is more cultivators of the earth 
than of their own hearts. 228. Nothing but vain and foolish 
pursuits delight some persons. 229. Not one of those whom thou 
sees clothed in purple -are happy. 230. Wisdom, virtue, happi- 
ness, dwells with the golden mediocrity. 

231. Luxurious living and high pleasures begets a langour and 
satiety which destroys all enjoyment. 232. The modest virgin, 
the prudent wife, or the careful matron, are much more service- 
able in life than petticoated philosophers. 233. Man is not such 
a machine as a clock or a watch, which move merely as they are 
moved. 234. My brother and him are tolerable grammarians. 
235. The parliament addressed the king, and has been prorogued 
the same day. 236. I have seen some young persons to conduct 
themselves very discreetly. 237. We heard the thunder to roll. 
238. It is a great support to virtue, Vvhen we see a good mind to 
maintain its patience and tranquillity under injuries and afflic- 
tions, and to cordially forgive its oppressors. 239. The flock, 
and not the fleece, are, or ought to be, the object of the shep- 
herd's care. 240. When the nation complain, the rulers should 
listen to their voice. 

241. I saw one whom I took to be she. 242. Let him be 


whom he may, I am not afraid of him, 243. Who do you think 
him to be 3 244. I am certain it was not him. 245. I believe 
it to have been they. 246. It might have been him. 247. It is 
impossible to be them. 248. It was either him or his brother 
that gained the first prize. 249. If he is but discreet he will 
succeed. 250. If he be but in health, I am content. 

251. If he does but intimate his desire, it will produce obedi- 
ence. 252. It is so clear as I need not explain it. 253. The 
relations are so uncertain, as that they require a great deal 
of examination. 254. The one is equally deserving as the other. 
255. As far as I am able to judge, the book is well written. 256. 
His raiment was so white as snow. 257. The not attending to 
this rule is the cause of a very common error. 258. The horse 
was stole. 259. They have chose the part of honour and virtue. 
260. The Rhine was froze over. 

261. She w^as showed into the drawing-room. 262. My peo- 
ple have slid backwards. 263. He has broke the bottle. 264. 
Some fell by the way-side, and was trode down. 265. The price 
of cloth has lately rose very much. 266. The work was very 
well execute. 267. His vices have weakened his mind, and 
broke his health. 268. He would have went with us, had he 
been invited. 269. Can any person on their entrance into life, 
be fully secure that they shall not be deceived ? 270. The chasm 
made by the earthquake was tw^enty foot broad, and one hundred 
fathom in depth. 

271. There is six foot w^ater in the hold. 272. I have no 
interests but that of truth and virtue. 273. Those sort of favours 
did real injury. 274. Thou who has been a witness of the fact, 
can give an account of it. 275. The child which was lost is 
found. 276. I am the person who adopt that sentiment and main- 
tains it. 277. Thou art a pupil who possesses bright parts, but 
who hast cultivated them but little. 278. Thou art the friend that 
hast often relieved me, and that has not deserted me now in the 
time of peculiar need. 279. The soldier, with a single compan- 
ion, who passed for the bravest man in the regiment, offered his 
services. 280. Either I or thou am greatly mistaken. 

281. He or I is sure of this wreck's prize. 282. Either Thomas 
or thou has spilt the ink on my paper. 283. John or I has done 

SYNTAX. 159 

it. 284. He or thou is the person who must go to London on 
that business. 285. The candidate being chosen was owing to 
the influence of party. 286. The winter has not been as severe 
as we expected it to have been. 287. Him and her were of the 
same age. 288. If the night have gathered aught of evil, dis- 
perse it. 289. Neither poverty nor riches was injurious to him. 
290. He or they was offended at it. 

291. Whether one or more was concerned in the business, 
does not yet appear. 292. The cares of this life, or the deceit- 
fulness of riches, has choked the seeds of virtue in many a pro- 
mising mind. 293. Disappointments and afflictions, however 
disagreeable, they often improve us. 294. Simple and innocent 
pleasures, they alone are durable. 295. Which rule, if it had 
been observed, a neighbouring prince would have wanted a great 
deal of that incense which has been offered up to him. 296. 
Man, though he has great variety of thoughts, and such, from 
which others as well as himself might receive profit and delight, 
yet they are all within his own breast. 297. That warm cli- 
mates should accelerate the growth of the human body, and 
shorten its duration, are very reasonable to believe. 298. That 
it is our duty to promote the purity of our minds and bodies, to be 
just and kind to our fellow-creatures, and to be pious and faithful 
to him who made us, admit not of any doubt in a rational and 
well-informed mind. 299. The great power and force of custom 
forms another argument against keeping bad company. 300. 
Public spirit is a more universal principle than a sense of honour. 

301. Do not interrupt me thyself, nor let no one disturb me. 
302. I am resolved not to comply with the proposal, neither at 
present nor at any other time. 303. As far as I can judge, a 
spirit of independency and freedom, tempered by sentiments of 
decency and the love of order, influence, in a most remarkable 
manner, the minds of the subjects of this happy republic. 304. 
That it is our duty to be pious admit not of any doubt. 305. If 
he becomes very rich, he may be less industrious. 306. It was 
wrote extempore. 307. Romulus, which founded Rome, killed 
his brother Remus. 308. He was extreme prodigal, and his 
property is now near exhausted. 309. They lived conformable 


to the rules of prudence. 310. He speaks very fluent, reads ex- 
cellent, but does not think very coherent. 

311. They came agreeable to their promise, and conducted 
themselves suitable to the occasion. 312. They hoped for a soon 
and prosperous issue to the war. 313. Such men that act treach- 
erously ought to be avoided. 314. He gained nothing farther by 
his speech, but only to be commended- for his eloquence. 315. 
This is none other but the gate of paradise. 316. Such sharp 
replies that cost him his life. 317. To trust in him is no more 
but to acknowledge his power. 318. I understood him the best 
of all others w^ho spoke on the subject. 319. Eve was the fairest 
of all her daughters. 320. He is the likeliest of any other to 

321. Jane is the wittier of the three, not the wiser. 322. John 
can write better than me. 323. He is as good as her. 324. 
Thou art a much greater loser than me by his death. 325. She 
suffers hourly more than me. 326. They know how to write as 
well as him ; but he is a better grammarian than them. 327. 
The undertaking v/as much better executed by his brother than 
he. 328. They are greater gainers than us. 329. She is not so 
learned as him. 330. If the king give us leave, we may perform 
the office as well as them that do. 

331. Let each esteem others better than themselves. 332. 
Every one of the letters bear date after his banishment. 333. 
Each of them, in their turn, receive the benefits to w^hich they are 
entitled. 334. Every person, whatever be their station, are 
bound by the duties of morality and religion. 335. Neither of 
those men seem to have any idea that their opinions may be ill- 
founded. 336. By discussing what relates to each particular in 
their order, we shall better understand the subject. 337. Are 
either of these men your friend ] 338. I always intended to 
have rewarded my son according to his merit. 339. We have 
done no more than it was our duty to have done. 340. From 
the little conversation I had with him, he appeared to have been 
a man of letters. 


617. Prosody, in the strict acceptation of the term, treats only o^versifi- 
vjtion. For convenience in teaching, however, several other topics are 
usually either included under this head, or at least discussed in the same 
part ot" the book. Among these may be reckoned Punctuation, which 
properly belongs to Orthography (5) ,* Orthoepy, or the right pronunciation 
of words, which properly belongs to the science of Elocution ; and 
Figures, which belong more to Rhetoric than to Grammar. Still it seems 
desirable to give the student of grammar the means of knowing at least 
the nomenclature, and some of the more important principles of these 
subjects. As they cannot be attended to with advantage till the student is 
familiar with the general principles of grammar, they are treated of under 
the same head with Prosody, which is always, and rightfully, the last 
point of grammar that the student learns. Under the fourth head of 
grammar, therefore, four topics will be considered, viz. Punctuation, 
Orthoepy, Figures, and Versification. 


618. Punctuation treats of the use of capital letters, and of the 
various points and characters, other than letters, that are used in 


619. In ancient writings, all the letters were capitals, and followed each 
other continuously, without being divided into words and sentences, either 
by points or by separation in space. Small letters were first introduced 
about the seventh century. For many centuries after the introduction of 
ihe small letters, capitals continued to be used much more than they are 
now. Nouns in particular, whether proper or common, always com 
menced with a capital. Writers and printers now vary somewhat in re- 
gard to the use of capitals, but the following rules may be considered as 
exhibiting present usage as nearly as it can be ascertained. 

620. The title page of a book, and the headings of chapters, 
should be printed entirely in capitals. 

621. In quoting the title of a book, every noun and other prin- 
cipal word should begin with a capital; as. "Sparks' Life of 

14 * (161) 


622. The first word of every book, chapter, letter, note, or writ- 
ing of any kind, should begin with a capital; also, the first word 
after a period or a note of interrogation ; and the first word in 
every line of poetry. 

623. All names and titles of the Deity begin with a capital ; 
as, God, Jehovah, the Almighty, the Supreme Being. 

624. A\\ proper names and titles of office or honour ; as, John, 
Washington, Baltimore, Broadway, Chief Justice Taney, General 
Cadwallader, United States Gazette, &c. ; also, adjectives de- 
rived from proper names; as, American, Pennsylvanian, Spa- 
nish, English, French, &c. 

625. The first word of an example or quotation, following a 
semicolon, begins with a capital ; as, " Temperance promotes 

626. The Pronoun I, and the interjection O, are always 

The Points in general. 

627. The Points now used in writing, as well as the distinction between 
small letters and capitals, were entirely unknown among the ancients. 
Aristophanes, a grammarian of Alexandria, about two centuries and a half 
before the Christian era, is said to have invented some contrivance of the 
kind. Whatever his invention was, it was subsequently lost, or at least 
never came into general use, and an attempt to revive it in the time of 
Charlemagne, met with only partial success. Some few marks of punrtua- 
tion seem to have come gradually into use, but without any fixed or uni- 
form usage. At length, in the fifteenth century, soon after the invention 
of printing, Aldus Manutius, a learned printer of Venice, increased the 
number of signs, established rules for their use, and reduced the art to 
nearly the condition in which it now exists. As in regard to the use of 
capitals, so here there is some discrepancy among writers and printers in 
their mode of punctuation. The following rules, however, are believed 
to exhibit the established usage, so far as such a usage exists, or can be 

628. The principal characters used in punctuation are the Comma (,), 
Semicolon (;), Colon (:), Period (.), and Interrogation (?), which are re- 
lated to each other; also the Exclamation (!), Dash ( — ), Parenthesis ( ), 
Apostrophe ('), &c. The period and interrogation are considered as 
marking a complete sentence. The colon marks a portion of a sentence 
subordinate to the period, the semicolon subordinate to the colon, and the 
comma subordinate to the semicolon. Hence, a comma marks the smallest 
portion into which a sentence can be divided. 



629. In a simple sentence (409), when the subject of the verb 
is not a single word, bat the nominative with several adjuncts, a 
comma is usually inserted before the verb ; as, " A steady and 
undivided attention to one object, is a sure mark of a superior 

630. In compound sentences, the different members are sepa- 
rated by commas; as, "Crafty men contemn studies, simple men 

' admire them, and Vv'ise men use them ;" except where the mem- 
j hers are very short, or very closely connected ; as, " Revelation 

tells us hoio we may attain happiness." 
j 631. Two words connected by a conjunction expressed, do 
'not admit a comma between them; as, "The earth and the 
moon are planets ;" " He catches and arrests the hours ;" " He 
acts prudently and vigorously.''^ When, however, the conjunc- 
tion is not expressed, a comma is inserted ; as, "He is a plain, 
honest man; except where two adjectives express, not different 
qualities of the noun, but different modifications of the same 
i' quality ; as, " A dark brown coat." 

632. More than two words connected in construction, whether 
with or without a conjunction, have a comma after each ; as, 
"Poetry, music, and painting-, are fine arts." Except where the 

j, words so connected are adjectives. The last adjective in such 
a case should not be separated from the noun immediately fol- 
lowing ; as, " David was a brave, wise, and prudent prince." 

633. Words in pairs take a comma between the pairs ; as, 
j " Anarchy and confusion, poverty and distress, desolation and 

ruin, are the consequences of civil war." 

634. Nouns in apposition are separated by a comma when- 
ever the latter noun is accompanied by several adjuncts ; as, 
" Paul, the apostle of the Gentiles.'^'' If the last three words be 
omitted, no comma will be required ; as, " Paul the apostle." 

635. The nominative independent ^ and the nominative abso- 
lute (422, 423); with the words dependent on them, are separated 
by commas from the rest of the sentence ; as, "My son, hear the 
instructions of thy father," " I remain, sir, your obedient ser- 
vant," " The time of youth being precious, we should devote it 
to improvement." 

I ' 


636. Comparative and antithetical clauses are separated by a 
comma ; thus, "As the hart panteth after the water-brooks, so 
doth my soul pant after thee," " Though deep, yet clear ; though 
gentle, yet not dull." When the comparison is very short, the 
comma is omitted ; as, " Wisdom is better than gold." 

637. A short expression in the manner of a quotation is sepa- 
rated by commas ; as, " Plutarch calls lying, the vice of slaves." 

638. Nay, so, hence, again, first, secondly, &c., when con- 
sidered important, and particularly at the commencement of a 
sentence, must be separated from the context by a comma ; as, | 
" Again, our reputation does not depend on the caprice of man, 
but on our own good actions." 

639. The Relative with its clause is usually separated from 
the rest of the sentence by commas ; as, " He, who disregards 
the good opinion of the world, must be utterly abandoned." Ex- 
cept when the relative is so closely connected with the antece- 
dent that they cannot be separated ;" as, ^^ Self-denial is the 
sacrifice which virtue must make." 

640. That, used as a conjunction, is preceded by a comma ; 
as, *' Be virtuous, that you may be happy." 

641. A verb understood requires a comma; as. " Readiiij^ 
makes a full man ; conversation, a ready man ; and writing, an 
exact man." 

642. As, thus, &c.; used to introduce examples, or quotations, 
are separated by a comma ; as, &c. 

643. Words repeated are separated by a comma ; as, " Holy, j 
holy, holy art Thou." 

644. Inverted sentences, by throwing two or more words out 
of their regular connexion, often require a comma ; as, " To 
God, nothing is impossible." In the natural order it would be, 
"Nothing is impossible to God." 

645. Adjectives, participles, adverbs, infinitives, &c., when 
separated from their dependent word, or accompanied by several 
adjuncts, generally require the insertion of commas; as, "Hig»| 
talents, formed for great enterprises, could not fail of rendering 
him conspicuous," " To conclude, I can only say this," &c., 

" Among the roots of hazel, pendent o^er the plaintive stream, 
they frame," &c. 



646. When a sentence consists of several members, and these 
members are complex and subdivided by commas, the larger 
divisions of the sentence are sometimes separated by the semi- 
colon ; thus, " As the desire of approbation, when it works ac- 
cording to reason, improves the amiable part of our species in 
every thing that is laudable ; so nothing is more destructive to 
them, when it is governed by vanity and folly." 

647. When several short sentences follow each other, each 
containing a complete sense in itself, but all having a common 
dependence upon some antecedent clause, they are generally 
separated from the antecedent clause by a comma, and from each 
other by a semicolon; as, ''Philosophers assert^ that nature is 
unlimited in her operations ; that she has inexhaustible treasures 
in reserve ; that knowledge will always be progressive ; and 
that all future generations will continue to m.ake discoveries." 

648. Several short sentences following each other, closely connected in 
meaning, but without any common grammatical dependence, are some- 
times separated by a semicolon ; as, " Every thing grows old ; every thing 
passes away; every thing disappears." 

649. When a sentence containing a complete sense in itself, 
is followed by a clause which is added by way of inference, ex- 
planation, or example, the additional clause, if introduced by a 
conjunction expressed, is separated from the main clause by a 
semicolon. Thus, " Apply yourself to study ; for it will re- 
dound to your honour," " Prepositions govern the objective case ; 
as, I write with a pen." 

650. When a general term stands in apposition to several 
others which are particulars under it, the general term is sepa- 
rated from the particulars by a semicolon, and the particulars 
are separated from each other by commas ; as, " x'\djective Pro- 
nouns are subdivided into four classes ; possessive, demonstrative, 
distributive, and indefinite." 


651. When several short sentences follow each other, each 
containing a complete sense in itself, but all having a common 


dependence upon some subsequent clause, these sentences are 
separated from the subsequent clause by a colon, and from each 
other by a semicolon ; as, " That Nature is unlimited in her 
operations ; that she has inexhaustible resources in reserve ; that 
knowledge will always be progressive ; and that all future 
generations will continue to make discoveries: these are among 
the assertions of philosophers." 

652. When a sentence containing a complete sense in itself, 
is followed by a clause which is added by way of inference, ex- 
planation, or example, the additional clause, if appended without 
any conjunction expressed^ is separated from the main clause by 
a colon; as, " Apply yourself to study: it will redound to your 


653. Sentences which are complete in sense, and not con- 
nected either in meaning or grammatical construction, are sepa- 
rated by a period. Thus, " Fear God. Honour the king. Have 
charity towards all men." 

654. Short sentences, when closely connected in meaning, though without 
any grammatical connexion, insert a semicolon instead of a period (648). 

655. Long sentences, if complete, even though grammatically 
connected, often insert a period. Thus, "He who lifts himself 
up to the notice and observation of the world, is, of all men, the 
least likely to avoid censure. For he draws upon himself a 
thousand eyes, that will narrowly inspect him in every part." 

656. A period must be used at the end of all books, chapters, 
sections, &c. ; also, after all abbreviations ; as, A. D., Art. XIV., 
J. Smith, &c. 


657. A question is reckoned as equal to a complete sentence, "^ 
and the mark of interrogation as equal to a period.^ 

658. The interrogation is always put at the end of a direct 
question ; as, " Why do you neglect your duty V 

659. The indirect question does not require the interrogation ; as, " He 
inquired, why you neglected your duty." 




660. The dash ( — ) is used where the sentence breaks off 
abruptly, where there is an unexpected turn in the sentiment, or 
where a significant pause is required ; as, " And God said — 
what?— let there be light." 

661. The EXCLAMATION (!) is used after expressions of sudden 
emotion of any kind; also, in invocations or addresses; as, 
" Eternity ! thou pleasing, dreadful thought !" When Oh is 
used, the point is placed immediately after it, or after the next 
word; as, "Oh! that I had been more diligent." But when O 
is used, the point is placed after some intervening words; as, 
" O my respected friends !" 

662. The parenthesis ( ) includes a clause inserted in the 
body of a sentence, which contains some useful information or 
remark, but which may be omitted wnthout injuring the gram- 
matical construction of the sentence ; as, " Know ye not, brethren, 
(for I speak to them that know the law,) how that the law hath 
dominion over a man as long as he liveth ?" When the clause 
is short, and falls in with the general drift of the sentence, the 
parenthesis is now very generally omitted, and commas used in its 
place; as, "Mantua, Milan, and Parma, fruitful provinces of 
Italy^ have often been the theatre of w^ar." 

663. Crotchets or brackets [ ] are used to enclose a w^ord 
or phrase which is interpolated, and W'hich is intended to supply 
some deficiency, or to correct some mistake. The parenthesis 
is sometimes used for the same purpose. 

664. The apostrophe ( ' ) is used when a letter is omitted ; 
as, enricK^d for enriched. 

665. The marks of quotation ( " " ) are put at the beginning 
and end of a passage quoted from an author in his own w-ords.. 

666. The hyphen (-) is used to connect compound w^ords; as, 
lap-dog. It is also used at the end of a line when the line ends 
with a broken word which is finished in the next line. The 
brace ( I ) is used to connect words or phrases. 

663. The caret ( /^ ) is used to show that some word is omit- 
ted. The ELLIPSIS ( ) is used when some letters in a word 

jare omitted ; as, W n, for Washington. Several asterisks 


are sometimes used for the same purpose ; as, J*** g * * se fQj. 
John Smith. 

669. The di.eresis (••) separates two vowels \vhich would 
otherwise be united in a diphthong ; as, aerial. 

670. The index (0:5^) points to remarkable passages; the 
SECTION ( 5 ) divides into chapters or portions ; the paragraph 
( *lT ) begins a new thought. 

671. The vowel marks are the acute accent ('), the grave 
accent (^ ), the circwnjlex accent ( '), the long sound (~), and 
the short sound (^). The marks of reference are the asterisk 
( * ), the obelisk or dagger ( | ), the double dagger ( { ), the 

■ parallels ( || ), &c. &c. 


672. Orthoepy, in its most general acceptation, means correct pronun- 
ciation. In that sense, it may include the pronunciation of letters, the 
sounds of which have already been considered under the head of Ortho- 
graphy ; the pronunciation of single words, which would connect it with 
the second general head of grammar, which treats of words; and the pro- 
nunciation of words in their associated capacity, that is, in sentences, both 
prose and poetical, which extends the subject to Syntax and Prosody, The 
word Orthoepy, however, is generally limited in its meaning to the second 
of these ideas, viz : the correct pronunciation of particular words. This, 
in a language so very irregular in this respect as the English, must be learn- 
ed by the ear, and by reference to some standard pronouncing dictionar}', 
rather than by rule. The whole subject, indeed, especially in the general 
acceptation of it first mentioned, belongs to the lexicographer and the 
elocTutionist, rather than to the grammarian. Still, it seems important to 
explain briefly some of the terms used in reference to it, and to state a few 
of the general principles. 


673. Accent is a stress of the voice laid upon a particular syl- 
lable, distinguishing it from the rest of the word. 

674. Every word of more than one syllable, has one of its 
syllables distinguished in this way from the rest. In addition to 
this, which is called the primary accent, if the word is long, it 
often has a secondary accent upon some other syllable ; as in 
the words, repartee, referee, domineer, &c. 

675. To determine the place of the primary accent is a matter 

PROSODY. ' 169 

of indispensable importance to correct pronunciation. Its dif- 
ficulty is as great as its importance. English words are derived 
mainly from two sources, the Saxon and the Latin. The idioms 
of the two languages, so far as the accent is concerned, are di- 
rectly opposite. The tendency of the Saxon is, through all the 
derivatives of a word, to retain the accent on the same syllable 
on which it is in the root ; as, thought^ thoughtful, thoughtful- 
ness. &c. In the Latin, on the contrary, the place of the accent 
depends upon the termination, and consequently changes Vvdth 
the different changes of the termination; as, '^ different, dif- 
ferential, indifferent, &c. In consequence of these opposite 
tendencies, and the frequent vacillations between the two, it 
becomes next to impossible to reduce the usages of the language 
to any settled rules or analogies, v/ithout making them very 
numerous, with still more numerous exceptions. The following 
rules, which are copied w^ith slight alterations from the octavo 
edition of Murray's Grammar, present, perhaps, as correct a view 
of the analogies of the language, in this respect, as can be 

Accent on Dissyllables. 

676. Of dissyllables, formed by affixing a termination, the 
former syllable is commonly accented ; as, " Childish, kingdom, 
actest, acted, toilsome, lover, scoffer, fairer, foremost, zealous, 
fulness, meekly, artist." 

677. Dissyllables, formed by prefixing a syllable to the radical 
word, have commonly the accent on the latter ; as, " To beseem, 
to bestow, to return." 

678. Of dissyllables, which are at once nouns and verbs, the 
verb has commonly the accent on the latter, and the noun, on 
the former syllable ; as, " To cement, a cement ; to contract, a 
contract ; to presage, a presage." 

679. This rule has many exceptions. Though verbs seldom 
have their accent on the former, yet nouns often have it on the 
latter syllable ; as, " Delight, perfume." Those nouns which, in 
the common order of language, must have preceded the verbs, 
often transmit their accent to the verbs they form, and inversely. 
ThuSj the noun " water," must have preceded the verb " to 



water," as the verb " to correspond," must have preceded the 
noun " correspondent :" and " to pursue" claims priority to " pur- 
suit." So that we may conclude, wherever verbs deviate from 
the rule, it is seldom by chance, and generally in those words 
only where a superior law of accent takes place. 

680. All dissyllables ending in y, our, ow, le, ish, ic, ter, 
age, en, et ; as, "Cranny, labour, wallow, willow (except allow, 
avow, endow, below, bestow) ; battle, banish, cambric, batter, 
courage, fasten, quiet ;" accent the former syllable. 

681. Dissyllable nouns in er ; as, "Canker, butter," have the 
accent on the former syllable. 

682. Dissyllable verbs, terminating in a consonant and e final ; 
as, " Comprise, escape ;" or having a diphthong in the last sylla- 
ble ; as, " Appease, reveal ;" or ending in two consonants ; as, 
"Attend;" have the accent on the latter syllable. 

683. Dissyllable nouns, having a diphthong in the latter sylla- 
ble, have commonly their accent on the latter syllable ; as, " Ap- 
plause ;" except some words in ain ; as, " Villain, curtain, 

684. Dissyllables that have two vowels, which are separated 
in the pronunciation, have always the accent on the first syllable ; 
as, "Lion, riot, quiet, liar, ruin;" except "create." 

Accent on Trisyllables. 

685. Trisyllables formed by adding a termination, or prefixing |l 
a syllable, retain the accent of the radical word ; as, " Loveli- 
ness, tenderness, contemner, wagoner, phy'sical, bespatter, com- 
menting, commending, assurance." 

686. Trisyllables ending in ous, al, ion ; as, " arduous, capi- 
tal, mention," accent the first. 

687. Trisyllables ending in ce, ent, and ate, accent the first 
syllable ; as, " Coiintenance, continence, armament, imminent, 
elegant, propagate ;" unless they are derived from words having 
the accent on the last ; as, " Connivance, acquaintance ;" and 
unless the middle syllable has a vowel before two consonants ; as, 
" Promulgate." 

688. Trisyllables ending in y ; as, " entity, specify, liberty, 
victory, subsidy," commonly accent the first syllable. 


689. Trisyllables ending in re or le, accent the first syllable; 
as, *' Legible, theatre ;" except " Disciple," and some words 
which have a preposition ; as, " Example, indenture." 

690. Trisyllables ending in ude^ commonly accent the first 
syllable ; as, *' Plenitude, habitude, rectitude." 

691. Trisyllables ending in ator, have the accent on the mid- 
dle syllables ; as, '^ Spectator, creator," &c. ; except " orator, 
senator, barrator, legator." 

692. Trisyllables which have in the middle syllable a diph- 
thong; as, "Endeavour;" or a^ vowel before two consonants; as, 
"Domestic;" accent the middle syllable. 

693. Trisyllables that have their accent on the last syllable 
are commonly French ; as, " Acquiesce, repartee, magazine ;" 
or they are words formed by prefixing one or two syllables to a 
long syllable ; as, " Immature, overcharge." 

Accent on Polysyllables. 

694. Polysyllables, or words of more than three syllables, 
generally follow the accent of the words from which they are 
derived ; as, " arrogating, continency, incontinently, commenda- 
ble, communicableness." 

695. Words ending in ator have the accent generally on the 
penultimate, or last syllable but one ; as, " Emendator, gladiator, 
equivocator, prevaricator." 

696. Words ending in le commonly have the accent on the 
first syllable ; as, " amicable, despicable ;" unless the second 
syllable has a vowel before two consonants ; as, " combustible, 

697. Words ending in ion, ous, and ty, have their accent on 
the antepenultimate, or last syllable but two; as, "Salvation, 
victorious, activity." 

698. Words which end in ia, io, and cal, have the accent on 
the antepenult; as, " Cyclopaedia, punctilio, despotical." 

699. The rules respecting accent, are not advanced as com- 
plete or infallible, but proposed as useful. Almost every rule of 
every language has its exceptions; and, in English, as in other 
tongues, much must be learned by example and authority. 

700. It may be further observed, that though the syllable on which the 


principal accent is placed, is fixed and certain, yet we may, and do, fre- 
quently make the secondary principal, and the principal secondary : thus, 
** Caravan, complaisant, violin, repartee, referee, privateer, domineer," may 
all have the greater stress on the first, and the less on the last syllable, 
without any violent offence to the ear i nay, it may be asserted that the 
principal accent on the first syllable of these words, and none at all on the 
last, though certainly improper, has nothing in it grating or discordant,' 
but placing an accent on the second syllable of these words, would entirely 
derange them,^ and produce a great harshness and dissonance. The sam^ 
observations may be applied to " demonstration, lamentation, provocation, 
navigator, propagator, alligator," and every similar word in the language. 


701. Emphasis is a stress of the voice laid upon a particular 
word, distinguishing it from the rest of the sentence. As accent 
distinguishes one syllable in a word, so emphasis distinguishes 
one word in a sentence. 

702. On the right management of the emphasis depends the life of pro- 
nunciation. If no emphasis be placed on any words, not only will dis- 
course be rendered heavy and lifeless, but the meaning often left ambigu- 
ous. If the emphasis be placed wrong, we shall pervert and confound the 
meaning wholly. 

703. To give a common instance: such a simple question as this, "Do 
you ride to town to-day ?" is capable of no fev/er than four different ac- 
ceptations, according as the emphasis is differently placed on the words. 
If it be pronounced thus: *' Do t/ou ride to town to-day?" the answer may 
naturally be, " No, we send a servant in our stead." If thus : " Do you ride 
to town to-day?" answer, "No, we intend to walk." " Do you ride to town 
to-day ?" " No, we ride into the country." " Do you ride to town to-day ?" 
*' No, but we shall to-morrow." 

704. In like manner, in solemn discourse, the whole force and beauty of an 
expression often depend on the em.phatic word ; and we may present to the 
hearers quite different views of the sentiment, by placing the emphasis 
differently. In the following words of our Saviour, observe in what 
different lights the thought is placed, according as the words are pro- 
nounced. "Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss?" '' Be- 
trayest thou," makes the reproach turn on the infamy of treachery. '* Be- 
trayest thou," makes it rest upon Judas's connexion with his master. " Be- 
trayest thou the So?i of man," rests it upon our Saviour's personal charac- 
ter and eminence. " Betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss V turns it 
upon his prostituting the signal of peace and friendship, to the purpose of 

705. The emphasis often lies on the word that asks a question ; as, ''Who 


said so ?" " When will he come ?" " What shall I do ? " W^hither shall I 
go ?" "Why dost ihou weep ?" And when two words are set in contrast, 
or in opposition to one another, they are both emphatic ; as, •* He is the 
tyrant, not the father of his people ;" " His subjects fear him, but they do 
not love him." 

706. Some sentences are so full and comprehensive, that almost every 
word is emphatical : as, " Ye hills and dales, ye rivers, woods and plains:'* 
or, as that emphatic expostulation in the prophecy of Ezekiel, " Why will 
ye die ?" In the latter short sentence, every word is emphatical ; and on 
whichever word we lay the emphasis, whether on the first, second, third 
or fourth, it strikes out a different sense, and opens a new subject of moving 

707. Emphasis often falls not only on single words, in different parts of 
the same sentence, but it is frequently required to be continued, with a lit- 
tle variation, on two, and sometimes more words together. The following 
sentences exemplify both the parts of this position : " If you seek to make 
one rich, study not to increase his stores, but to diminish his desires.'' " The 
Mexican figures, or picture-writing, represent things, not words: they ex- 
hibit images to the eye, not ideas to the understanding. 

708. As accent dignifies the syllable on which it is laid, and makes it 
more distinguished by the ear than the rest ; so emphasis ennobles the 
word to which it belongs, and presents it in a stronger light to the under- 
standing. Were there no accents, words would be resolved into their origi- 
nal syllables; were there no emphasis, sentences v/ould be resolved into 
their original words ; and, in this case, the hearer would be under the pain- 
ful necessity first, of making out the words, and afterv/ard, their meaning. 

709. Emphasis changes, in particular cases, the seat of the 
accent. This is demonstrable from the following examples: 
" He shall mcrease, but I shall cZecrease," " There is a difference 
between giving and/orgiving," " In this species of composition, 
plaus,ih\\\iy is much more essential than ^probability." In these 
examples, the emphasis requires the accent to be placed on sylla- 
bles, to which it does not commonly belong. 

710.. In order to acquire the proper management of the emphasis, the 
great rule, and indeed the only rule, possible to be given, is, that the 
speaker or reader study to attain a just conception of the force and spirit 
of the sentiments which he is to pronounce. For, to lay the emphasis with 
exact propriety, is a constant exercise of good sense and attention. It is 
far from being an inconsiderable attainment. It is one of the greatest trials 
of a true and just taste : and must arise from feeling delicately ourselves, 
and from judging accurately of what is fittest to strike the feelings of others. 

711. There is one error, against which it is particularly proper to cau- 



tion the learner ; namely, that of multiplying emphatical words too much. 
It is only by a prudent reserve in the use of them, that we can give them 
any weight. If they recur too often ; if a speaker or reader attempts to 
render every thing which he expresses of high importance, by a multitude 
of strong emphases, we soon learn to pay little regard to them. To crowd 
every sentence with emphatical words, is like crowding all the pages of a 
book with italic characters, which, as to effect, is just the same as to use 
no such distinctions at all. 


712. The QUANTITY of a syllable is the time occupied in pro- 
nouncing it. 

713. Syllables are divided in this respect into two sorts, long 
and short. When the length of a syllable is marked, the long 
and short marks are always over the vowel^ and not over any of 
the consonants ; as, boldness. A long syllable requires double 
the time of a short one in pronunciation ; as, mate, mat ; note, 

714. A syllable is long, when the accent is on the vowel ; as, 
" Fall, bale, mood, house, feature." 

715. A syllable is short, w^hen the accent is on the consonant ; 
as, " ant, bonnet, hunger." 

716. Unaccented syllables are generally short ; as, " admire, 
boldness, sinner." But to this rule there are many exceptions ; 
as, " also, exile, gangrene, umpire, foretaste, &c. 

717. All vowels under the principal accent, before the terminations ia, 
io, and ion, preceded by a single consonant, are pronounced long : as, " Re- 
galia, folio, adhesion, explosion, confusion »" except the vowel ?*, which in 
that situation is short : as, " Militia, punctilio, decision, contrition." The 
only exceptions to this rule seem to be, " Discretion, battalion, national, 
and rational." 

718. All the vowels that immediately precede the terminations, ity and 
ety, are pronounced long : as, " Deity, piety, spontaneity." But if one con- 
sonant precedes these two terminations, every preceding accented vowel 
is short ; except u, and the a in " security, and rarity :" as, '* Polarity, se- 
verity, divinity, curiosity; — impunity." Even u before two consonants con- 
tracts itself: as, "Curvity, taciturnity," &c. 

719. Vowels under the principal accent, before the terminations ic and 
ical, preceded by a single consonant, are pronounced short; thus, " Satanic, 
pathetic, elliptic, harmonic, fanatical, poetical, levitical, canonical;" except, 
*' Tunic, runic, cubic, musical, cubical," &c. 



720. The vowel in the antepenultimate syllable of words, with the fol- 
lowing terminations, is always pronounced short. 

loquy : as, obloquy. parous : as, oviparous. 

strophe: as, apostrophe. cracy : as, aristocracy. 

meter: as, barometer. gony : as, cosmogony. 

gonal: as, diagonal. phony : as, symphony. 

vorous : as, carnivorous. nomy : as, astronomy. 

ferous: as, somniferous. tomy : as, anatomy, 

/i/oz^s; as, superfluous. /^ai/e?/; as, antipathy. 
fluent : as, mellifluent. 


721. Pauses are of three kinds : first, emphatical pauses ; 
! secondly, such as mark the distinctions of the sense ; and lastly, 
! 'poetical pauses . 

722. An emphatical pause is made, after something has been said of 
peculiar moment, and on which we desire to fix the hearer's attention. 
Sometimes, before such a thing is said, we usher it in with a pause of this 
nature. Such pauses have the same effect as a strong emphasis, and are 
subject to the same rules, especially to the caution just now given, of not 

' repeating them too frequently. For as they excite uncommon attention, 
* and of course raise expectation, if the importance of the matter is not 
I fully answerable to such expectation, they occasion disappointment and 
l| disgust. 

723. But the most frequent and the principal use of pauses, is, to mark 
\ the divisions of the sense, and at the same to allow the speaker to draw his 
(i breath ; and the proper and delicate adjustment of such pauses, is one of 
I the most nice and difficult articles of delivery. In all reading, and public 

speaking, the management of the breath requires a good deal of care, so 
j as not to oblige us to divide words from one another, which have so inti- 
mate a connexion, that they ought to be pronounced with the same breath, 
' and without the least separation. Many sentences are miserably mangled, 
and the force of the emphasis totally lost, by the divisions being made in 
the wrong place. To avoid this, every one, while he is speaking, or read- 
I ing, should be very careful to provide a full supply of breath for what he 
is to utter. It is a great mistake to imagine, that the breath must be dravv^n 
only at the end of a period, when the voice is allowed to fall. It may 
easily be gathered at the intervals of the period, when the voice is only 
suspended for a moment; and, by this management, one may always have 
a sufficient stock for carrying on the longest sentence, without improper 
; 724. Pauses in reading and public discourse must be formed upon the 
imanner in which we utter ourselves in ordinary, sensible conversation; 


and not upon the stiff artificial manner which we acquire, from reading 
books according to the common punctuation. It will by no means be suf- 
ficient to attend to the points used in printing ; for these are far from 
marking all the pauses which ought to be made in speaking. A mechani- 
cal attention to these resting-places, has perhaps been one cause of mono- 
tony, by leading the reader to a similar tone at every stop, and a uniform 
cadence at every period. The primary use of points is, to assist the reader 
in discerning the grammatical construction ; and it is only as a secondary 
object, that they regulate his pronunciation. . 

725. To render pauses pleasing and expressive, they must not only be l| 
made in the right place, but also accompanied with a proper tone of voice, 
by which the nature of these pauses is intimated : much more than by the 
length of them, which can seldom be exactly measured. Sometimes it is 
only a slight and simple suspension of voice that is proper; sometimes a 
degree of cadence in the voice is required ; and sometimes that peculiar 
tone and cadence which denote the sentence to be finished. In all these 
cases, we are to regulate ourselves, by attending to the manner in which 
nature teaches us to speak, when engaged in real and earnest discourse with 

'^26. It is a general rule, that the suspending pause should be used when 
the sense is incomplete; and the closing pause when it is finished. But 
there are phrases, in which, though the sense is not completed, the voice 
takes the closing, rather than the suspending pause; and others, in which 
the sentence finishes by the pause of suspension. 

727. The closing pause must not be confounded with that fall of the 
voice, or cadence, with which many readers uniformly finish a sentence. 
Nothing is more destructive of propriety and energy than this habit. The 
toties and inflections of the voice at the close of a sentence, ought to be 
diversified, according to the general nature of the discourse, and the par- 
ticular construction and meaning of the sentence. In plain narrative, and 
especially in argumentation, a small attention to the manner in which we 
relate a fact, or maintain an argument in conversation, will show, that it is 
frequently more proper to raise the voice, than to let it fall, at the end of 
a sentence. Some sentences are so constructed, that the last words re- 
quire a stronger emphasis than any of the preceding; while others admit 
of being closed with a soft and gentle sound. Where there is nothing in 
the sense Vr-hich requires the last sound to be elevated or emphatical, an 
easy fall, sufficient to show that the sense is finished, will be proper. And 
in pathetic pieces, especially those of the plaintive, tender, or solemn kind, 
the tone of the passion will often require a still greater cadence of the 
voice. The best method of correcting a uniform cadence, is frequently to 
read select sentences, in which the style is pointed, and in which antitheses 
are frequently introduced; and argumentative pieces, or such as abound 
with interrogatives, or earnest exclamation. 


728. Poetical pauses are of two kinds; the Jinal pause at the end of each 
line, and the ccesural pause near the middle of the line. 

729. In reading blank verse, where there is no help from rhyme, the 
close of each line should be made sensible to the ear, but without any ele- 
vation or depression of the voice. The termination of the line should be 
marked only by such a slight suspension of sound as may distinguish the 
passage from one line to another without injuring the sense. 

730. In reading a line of eight, ten, or twelve syllables, a decided pause 
is found necessary somewhere near the middle of the line. This is called 
the ccBSural pause, and is generally at the end of the fourth, fifth, or sixth 


731. Tone is that quality of the voice by which it is expressive 
of emotion. The tones are consequently as various as are the 
emotions of the mind. 

732. The best, and in fact the OJily general rule for the tone, is to attend 
carefully to the meaning of the author, and endeavour to feel the proper 
emotion. If the emotion is felt, the tone will follow as naturally as the 
change in the features. No man utters fear, hope, joy, sorrow, anger, ad- 
miration, &c., in the same tone of voice. In passing, however, from one 
tone to another, the voice is infiected, so to speak, up and down. These in- 
flections are capable of being reduced to certain practical rules, which may 
be found in any good work on elocution. One general remark, however, 
may be made here in regard to them, which is this : The violent emotions 
are, for the most part, expressed by a rising inflection of the voice, and the 
gentle emotions by a falling inflection. 


733. A figure in language is some deviation from the usual mode of 
speech. This deviation may be in the form of a w^ord, and then it relates 
to Orthography and Etymology ; it may be in its construction with the other 
words of a sentence, and then it relates to Syntax; it may be in the meaii- 
ing of a word, and then it relates to Rhetoric; and as figures of all kinds 
are more common in poetry than elsewhere, the whole subject cannot be 
considered as unconnected with Prosody. The reason for discussing the 
subject in this part of the book, has already been assigned (617). I need 
only add here, that in whatever part of grammar it is considered, it is desira- 
ble that the whole subject should be presented at once, and not in detached 


734. A figure of Orthography or Etymology is some deviation 


from the usual form of a word. The figures of this kind are 
eight ; AphcBresis, Syncope, Apocope, Prosthesis, Paragoge, 
Synccresis, Diccresis, and Tmesis. 

735. Aphceresis takes away a letter or syllable from the he- 
ginning of a word ; as, ^gan, for began. 

736. Syncope rejects a letter or syllable from the middle of a 
word ; as, lov'd for loved ; se'^nnight for sevennight. 

737. Apocope cuts off a letter or syllable from the end ; as, 
tK for the ; morn for morning ; scant fur scanty. 

738. Prosthesis adds a letter or syllable to the beginning of a 
word ; as, enchain, dispart, for chain, part. 

739. Paragoge adds a letter or syllable to the end ; as, 
awaken for awake. 

740. SyncBresis is the contraction of two vowels or of two 
syllables into one; as ie in alienate, pronounced as if written 
Al-ye-nate. Two words also are frequently contracted into one ; 
as, ' Tis for it is ; "'twas for it was ; weHl, for ive will. 

741. Diaeresis is the division of one syllable into two, by plac- 
ing the mark •* over the latter of two vowels ; as, in zoology. 
It seldom occurs in English. 

742. Tmesis separates a compound word by putting a word 
between ; as, " To God ivard,''' that is, " Toicard God." 


743. A figure of Syntax is some deviation from the ordinary 
construction of a word. The figures of this kind are usually 
reckoned four ; Ellipsis, Pleonasm. Enallage, and Hyperhaton, 

744. Ellipsis is the omission of words necessary to supply the 
regular or full construction ; as, " Reading makes a full man ; 
conversation [makes] a ready man ; and writing [makes] an 
exact man." 

745. Pleonasm is the use of superfluous words ; as, " I went 
home full of a great many serious reflections." Here the words 
a great many must be cancelled, as unnecessary. So, in the 
phrases, " this here,^^ " that there,^^ the words here and there must 
be omitted. 

746. Enallage is the use of one part of speech for another, 


and is confined to poetry; as, ^^ Sloio rises merit, when by- 
poverty depressed." 

747. Hyperbaton is the transposition of words; as, "Come, 
nymph demure^ It frequently imparts energy to a sentence, 
and is very common in poetry. 


748. A figure of Rhetoric is a deviation from the proper and 
> literal meaning of a word or phrase. The figures of this kind 
I are very numerous. It is impracticable here to give more than 

an enumeration of the principal ones, with a brief illustration of 

|; each. 

'I 749. The following are the principal Figures of Rhetoric: 
Simile, Metaphor, Allegory, Antithesis, Allusion, Hyperbole, 
Irony, Metonymy, Synecdoche, Personification, Apostrophe, In- 
terrogation, Exclamation, Vision, and Climax. 

750. A Simile is a formal comparison between two objects, 
I expressed by the words like or as. Thus, we can say of a horse, 
',! "He is as swift as the wind f' and of a man, "He is SLsJirm as 

a roc/i." 

751. A Metaphor expresses a resemblance between two ob- 
jects without the sign of comparison like or as; thus, "Thy 
word is a lamp to my feet, and a light to my path." A metaphor 
implies a comparison, and differs from a simile only in forin, the 
sign of comparison being omitted. Thus, when I say, "A hero 
is like a lion," I use a simile, but when I say, " A hero is a lion," 

I; I employ a metaphor. 

752. An Allegory is a continued metaphor, representing one 
subject by another which is analogous to it. The subject thus 
represented is not formally mentioned, but will be easily dis- 
covered by reflection. 

753. The following from the 80th Psalm is a beautiful allegory, in which 
the Jewish nation is represented under the symbol of a vine. "Thou hast 
brought a vine out of Egypt ; thou hast cast out the heathen and planted it. 
Thou preparedst room before it; and didst cause it to take deep root, and 
it filled the land. The hills were covered with the shadow of it; and the 
boughs thereof were like the goodly cedars. It sent out its boughs into the 
sea, and its branches into the river. Why hast thou broken down its hedges, 



so that all they who pass by the way do pluck it ? The boar out of the 
wood doth waste it, and the wild beast of the field doth devour it." 

754. An Antithesis is a contrast or opposition between two 
objects, by which they are both made to appear in a stronger 
light; as, " Temperance leads to happiness, intemperance to 

755. An Allusion is a figure by which some word or phrase 
in a sentence recalls to our mind either some well-known fact 
in history, or fable in mythology, or the sentiments of some dis- 
tinguished writer. 

Burke, in his speech on the Carnatic war, makes the following allu- 
sion to the well-known fable of Cadmus's sowing dragon's teeth : — " Every 
day you are fatigued and disgusted with this cant, the Carnatic is a country 
that will soon recover, and become instantly as prosperous as ever. They 
think they are talking to innocents, who believe that by the sowing of dra- 
gon's teeth, men may come up ready grown and ready made." 

756. A Hyperbole is a figure that represents things as greater 
or less, better or worse, than they are in reality ; thus, David, 
speaking of Saul and Jonathan, says, " They were swifter than 
eagles J they were stronger than lions ^ 

757. Irony is a figure by which we express ourselves in a 
manner contrary to our thoughts, not with a view to deceive, 
but to add force to our observations. Thus, the prophet Elijah, 
in challenging the priests of Baal to prove the truth of their 
deity, ironically says, " Cry aloud, for he is a god ; either he is 
talking, or he is pursuing, or he is on a journey, or peradventure 
he sleepeth, and must be awaked." 

758. A Metonymy is a figure by which w^e put the cause for 
the effect, or the effect for the cause, the container for the thing 
contained, the sign for the thing signified. Thus, 1. The cause 
for the efi^ect, or the author for his works; as, "I am reading 
Virgil ;" that is, his loorks. — 2. The efl^ect for the cause ; as, 
* Grey hairs should be respected ;" that is, old age. 3. The 

container for the thing contained ; as, " The kettle boils," mean- 
ing the water. — 4. The sign for the thing signified ; as, " He 
assumes the sceptre ; that is, " He assumes the sovereignty V 

759. A Synecdoche is a figure by which the whole is put for 
a part, or a part for the whole, a definite for an indefinite num- 


ber, &c.; as, ^^Man returns to the dust," meaning only his body ; 
"He earns his bread,''^ meaning all the necessaries of life. 

760. Personification or Prosopopeia is that figure by which 
we attribute life and action to inanimate objects ; as, " The 
thirsty ground ; " The angry ocean ;" " The mountains saw 
Thee, O Lord, and they trembled^ 

761. An Apostrophe is a turning off from the subject of dis- 
course, to address some other person or thing ; as, " It advances, 
and with menacing aspect slides into the heart of the city. O 
my country ! ah ! Ilium, the habitation of the gods .'" Person- 
ification and apostrophe so nearly coincide, that they are fre- 
quently confounded. The former, however, consists in giving 
life to inanimate objects, and the latter in abruptly addressing 
objects thus animated, or persons that are dead or absent. 

662. An Interrogation is used literally to ask a question ; but 
figuratively, it is employed, when the passions are greatly moved, 
to affirm or deny more strongly. Thus, " The Lord is not a man 
that he should lie, neither the son of man that he should repent. 
Hath he said it? and shall he not do it? Hath he spoken it? 
and shall he not make it good .^" 

763. Exclamation is used to express agitated feeling, admira- 
tion, wonder, surprise, anger, joy, &c.; thus, " O the depth of the 
riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God I" 

764. Vision is a figure used only in animated and dignified 
compositions, when, instead of relating something that is past or 
future, we employ the present tense, and describe it as actually 
passing before our eyes. Thus, Cicero, in his fourth oration 
against Catiline, says, " I seem to myself to behold this city, the 
ornament of the earth, and the capital of all nations, suddenly 
involved in one conflagration. I see before me the slaughtered 
heaps of citizens, lying unburied in the midst of their ruined 

765. Climax is a figure in which a succession of ideas is 
given continually increasing in importance, until the last, which 
is meant to be the most important and striking of all; thus, 
"There is no enjoyment of property without government; no 
government without a magistrate ; no magistrate without obedi- 
ence ; and no obedience where every one acts as he pleases." 





766. Versification is the arrangement of words into 
poetical lines or verses. 


767. A poetical line or verse consists of a certain number of 
accented and unaccented syllables, arranged according to fixed 
rules. It was originally called verse, from the Latin verto, to 
turn, because when we have finished one line we turn back to 
commence another. 

763. A couplet or distich consists of two lines or verses taken 
together, whether rhyming with each other or not ; a triplet, of 
three lines rhyming together. 

769. A stanza is a combination of several lines, varying in 
number according to the poet's fancy, and constituting a regular 
division of a poem or song. The word verse, which strictly 
means only a single line, is often incorrectly used for stanza. 

770. Rhyme is the correspondence of the last sound of one 
verse to the last sound of another. Verses which have this cor- 
respondence in the final sounds, are called rhyming verses, and 
the poetry so formed is sometimes called simply rhyme. 

771. Blank verse is the name given to that species of poetry 
which is without rhyme. 


772. Feet are the smaller portions into which a line or verse 
is divided. They are called feet, because by their aid the voice 
steps along, as it were, through the verse in a measured pace. 

773. It is necessary that the syllables which mark this regular movement 
of the voice, should, in some manner, be distinguished from the others. 
This distinction was made among the ancient Romans, by dividing their 
syllables into long and short, and ascertaining their quantity, by an exact 
proportion of time in sounding them ; the long being to the short, as two 
to one ; and the long syllables, being thus the more important, marked the 
movement. In English, syllables are divided into accented and unaccented ; 
and the accented syllables being as strongly distinguished from the unac- 
cented, by the peculiar stress of the voice upon them, are equally capable 
of marking the movement, and pointing out the regular paces of the voice, 


OS the long syllables were by their quantity, among the Romans. When 
the feet are formed by an accent on vowels, they are exactly of the same 
nature as the ancient feet, and have the same just quantity in their sylla- 
bles. So that, in this respect, we have all that the ancients had, and some- 
thing which they had not. We have in fact duplicates of each foot, yet 
with such a difference as to fit them for different purposes, to be applied 
at our pleasure. In the examples which follow, the accented syllables are 
distinguished by the mark of a long syllable, and the unaccented by the 
mark of a short syllable. 

774. Scanning is dividing a verse into its feet, in order to 
ascertain whether the number and arrangement of the syllables 
are according to the laws of versification. A line, in which a 
syllable is wanting, is said to be catalectic; one which is com- 
plete, acatalectic ; one in which there is a redundant syllable, 
hypercatalectic or hypermeter. In saying that a verse is re- 
dundant or the opposite, it is not meant to express the idea that 
the verse is faulty. On the contrary, these added or deficient 
syllables often contribute essentially to the beauty of the versi- 
fication. The grammarian's province is merely to adopt some 
convenient name by w^hich to recall the fact. 

775. The feet used in English poetry are divided into eight 
kinds ; four of two syllables, and four of three syllables. 

Feet of two syllables, 

1. An Iambus "" ~; as, defend. 

2. A Trochee " ^; as, noble. 

3. A Spondee ; as, vain man. 

4. A Pyrrhic " "; as, on a (hill). 

Feet of three syllables. 

5. An Anapaest ^ ^ ~; as, intercede. 

6. A Dactyl - ^ v.. ^^^ virtuous. 

7. An Amphibrach ^ ~ ^; as, contentment. 

8. A Tribrach v^ ^^ ^j as, (nu)merable. 

Kinds of Verse. 

776. The first two on each of these lists, namely, the Iambus^ 
Trochee, Anapcest, and Dactyl, are the principal feet. They 
are the only ones with which a piece of poetry may be wholly or 
in great part formed. The other four feet are chiefly used in con- 
nexion with the ones first named, for the purpose of giving variety. 


777. The kind of verse to which any piece of poetry belongs, 
depends upon the kind of foot by which it is chiefly formed. 
Hence it is styled Iambic^ Trochaic, Anapcestic. or Dactylic 
verse, according as the prevailing foot is an Iambus, a Trochee, 
an Anapaest, or a Dactyl. 

778. Each of these kinds of verse is subdivided according to 
the number of feet or metres in a line. A line consisting of only 
one foot is called a Monometer ; of two feet, a Dimeter ; of 
three feet, a Trimeter ; of four feet, a Tetrameter ; of five feet, 
a Pentameter ; of six feet, a Hexameter ; and of seven feet, a 


779. Iambic Monometer, The shortest form of the English 
Iambic consists of an Iambus, with an additional short or unac- 
cented syllable ; as. 

Disdain I m^, 



Repent [in^. 
We have no poem of this measure, but it may be met with in 
stanzas. The Iambus, with this addition, coincides with the 

780. Iambic Dimeter. The second form of our Iambic, is also 
too short to be continued through any great number of lines. It 
consists of two Iambuses. 

What place | is here 7 
What scenes | appear? 
To me I the rose 
No long|er glows. 
It sometimes takes an additional short or unaccented syllable : 


Upon I a m6unt|am 

Beside | a fount|«m. 

781. Iambic Trimeter. The third form consists of three Iam- 

In pla|ces far | or near. 

Or fa|mous or | obscure, 
Where whole Isome is | the air. 
Or where | the most | impure. 


It sometimes admits of an additional short or unaccented sylla- 
ble : as, 

Our hearts | no longjer l3in\guisJi. 

782. Iambic Tetrameter. The fourth form is made up of four 

Iambuses. ^ ^ w 

And may | at last | rny wea|ry age 

Find out | the peace jful fierjmitage. 

This measure is also varied by admitting an additional short or 

unaccented syllable at the end ; as, 

Or if I it be 1 thy will | and ])le3L\sure, 
Direct | my plough | to find | a trea|5wre. 

783. Iambic Pentameter. The fxfth species of English Iam- 
bic consists of five Iambuses. 

How loved, I how val|iied once, | avails | thee not, 
To whom I relajted, or | by whom | begot; 
A heap | of dust | alone | remains | of thee ; 
'Tis all I thou art, | and all | the proiid | shall be. 

Be wise | to-day, | 'tis madjness to | defer; 
Next day | the fajtal pre|cedent | will, plead ; 
Thus on, I till wis|dom is | push'd out | of life. 

This is called the heroic measure. In its simplest form it 
consists of five Iambuses, but by the admission of other feet, as 
Trochees, Anapaests^ &c., it is capable of many varieties. The 
following is made by adding a short or unaccented syllable ; 

Ten thoiijsand glitt'|ring lamps | the skies | adorn jm^g'. 

784. Iambic Hexameter. The sixth form of our Iambic, is 
frequently called the Alexandrine measure. It consists of six 

For thou I art biit | of dust ; | be hum|ble and | be wise. 
The Alexandrine is sometimes introduced into heroic rhyme ; 
and when used sparingly, and with judgment, occasions an agree- 
able variety. 

The seas | shall waste, | the skies | in smoke | decay, 
Rocks fall I to diist, | and moiint|ains melt | away; 
But fix'd I his word, | his sav|ing power | remains : 
Thy realm \f6r tv\tr lasts, \ thy own | Messi\dh reigns, 


785. Iambic Heptameter. The seventh and last form of our 
Iambic measure, is made up of seven Iambuses. 

The Lord j descend jed from | above, | and bow'd | the heavjens 
This was anciently written in one line ; but it is now broken 
into two ; the first containing four feet, and the second three : 

When all | thy merjcies, O | my God ! 

My ris|ing soul | surveys. 
Transport jed with | the view, | I'm lost 

In won|der, love, | and praise. 

In this form it admits of an additional unaccented syllable at 
the end of each odd line ; as. 

From Greenland's ijcy moiint|ams 

From In^dia's colral strand. 
Where Af [ric's simlny fount|flms 
Roll down I their goldlen sand. 


786. Trochaic Monometer. The shortest Trochaic verse in 
our language, consists of one Trochee and a long or accented 

Tumult I cease ^ 
Sink to I peace. 

This measure is defective in dignity, and can seldom be used 
on serious occasions. 

787. Trochaic Dimeter, The second English form of the 
Trochaic consists of two feet; and is likewise so brief, that it is 
rarely used for any very serious purpose. 

On the I mountain, 
By a I fountain. 

It sometimes contains two trochees, with an additional long or 
accented syllable, as, 

in the I days 6? \ old. 

Fables | plainly | told. 


788. Trochaic Trimeter. The third species consists of three 
trochees ; as, 

When our [ hearts are | mourning : 

or of three trochees, with an additional long or accented sylla- 
ble ; as, 

Restless | mortals | toil for | nought; 

Bliss in | vain from | earth is | sought ; 

Bliss a I native | of the | sky^ 

Never | wanders. | Mortals, | try ; 

There you | cannot | seek in | vain ; 

For to I seek her | is to | gain, 

789. Trochaic Tetrameter. The fourth Trochaic species con- 
sists of /owr trochees; as. 

Round us I roars the | tempest | louder. 

This form may take an additional long or accented syllable, as 

follows : 

Idle I after | dinner | in his | chdir^ 
Sat a I farmer, | ruddy, | fat, and | fair. 

But this measure is very uncommon. 

790. Trochaic Pentameter. The fifth Trochaic species is 
likewise uncommon. It is composed o^ Jive trochees ; as, 

In the I dark and | green and | gloomy | valley, 
Satyrs | by the | brooklet | love to | dally. 
The same with an additional accented syllable; as, 

Where the | wood is | weaving | green and | high, 
Fauns and | Dryads | watch the | starry | sky. 

791. Trochaic Hexameter. The sixth form of the English 
Trochaic consists of six trochees ; as. 

On a 1 mountain, | stretch'd be|neath a | hoary | willow, 
Lay a | shepherd | swain, and | view'd the | rolling | billow. 

This is the longest Trochaic verse that seems to have been 


792. AnapcBstic Monometer. The shortest anapaestic verse is 
a single anapaest ; as. 


In a sweet 

All their feet 

In the dance 
All the night 
Tinkled light. 
This measure is, however, often ambiguous; for by laying an 
accent on the first, as well as the third syllable, we may gene- 
rally make it a trochaic. 

793. AnapcBstic Dimeter, The next form of our Anapaestic 
verse, is made up of tivo Anapsssts ; as, 

On a plain, | as he strode 
By the her|mit's abode. 

The same with an additional short or unaccented syllable. 
On the road | by the vallley, 

As he wan|derM lament|m^, 
To the green | of the f6r\est, 
He retiirn'd | him repent|ir?^. 

794. AnapcBstic Trimeter, The third species consists of 
three Anapgests. 

ye woods, | spread your branch|es apace; 
To your deepiest recess|es I fly; 

1 would hide | with the beasts | of the chase ; 
I would vanjish from ev|ery eye. 

This is a very pleasing measure, and much used, both in 
solemn and cheerful subjects. 

795. AnapcBstic Tetrameter. The fourth kind of the English 
Anapaestic consists of four Anapaests. 

May I g6v|ern my pas|sions with ab|solute sway ; 
And grow wi|ser and bet|ter as life | wears away. 

This measure will admit of a short or unaccented syllable at 
the end ; as. 
On the warm | cheek of youth, | smiles and r6|ses are blend |m^. 



796. Dactylic Monomcter. The. shortest dactylic verse con- 
sists of a single dactyl, as in the following: 


The same with an additional accented syllable : 
Over a | mead 
Pricking his | steed, 

797. Dactylic Dimeter, This consists of two dactyls, as in 
the following : 

Free from sa'tiety, 
Care, and anx|iety. 
Charms in va|riety, 
Fall to his | share. 

The same with an additional accented syllable : 
" Cover'd with | snow was the | vale, 
Sad was the | shriek of the | gale, 
When, on the | night, woful | wail 
Rose to the | skies — to the | skies /" 

798. Dactylic Trimeter, This consists of three dactyls, as in 
the following : 

Wearing a|way in his | youthfulness, 
Loveliness, | beauty and | truthfulness. 

The same with an additional accented syllable : 

" Time it has | pass'd, and the | lady is | pale, — 
Pale as the | lily that | lolls on the | gale ; 
Weary and | worn, she has | waited for | years. 
Keeping her | grief ever | green with her | tears; 
Years will she | tarry, for | cold is the | clay 
Fetfrlng the \ form of her | Everard | Grey^ 

EvERARD Gray. 

799. The Dactylic Tetrameter, Pentameter, and Hexameter, 
with the additional or hypermeter syllable, are all found combined 
in the following extraordinary specimen of versification. For this, 


as well as for those quoted in the two preceding paragraphs, the 
author is indebted to the pen of Henry B. Hirst, Esq., of Phila- 
delphia. It will be observed, that in each stanza, the first two 
lines are tetrameters, the third pentameters, and the fourth hexa- 
meters. This is the only specimen of Dactylic hexameter or even 
pentameter verse that the author recollects to have seen. 


" Glad was our | meeting : thy | glittering | bosom I | heard, 
Beating on | mine, like the | heart of a | timorous | bfrd ; 
Bright were thine | eyes as the | stars, and their | glances 

were | radiant as | gleams 
Falling from | eyes of the | angels, when | singing by | Eden's 

piir I piireal | streams. 

" Happy as | seraphs were ] we, for we | wander'd a | lone, 
Trembling with i passionate i thrills, when the ! twilight had 

flown : 
Even the | echo was | silent: our | kisses and | whispers of 

Languish'd un | heard and un | known, like the i breath of the 

blossoming | buds of the | grove, 

" Life hath its | pleasures, but | fading are | they as the 

flowers : 
Sin hath its | sorrows, and | sadly we | tiirn'd from those 

b divers : 
Bright were the | angels be | hind with their | falchions of 

heavenly | flame ! 
Dark was the ] desolate | desert be | fore us, and | darker 

the I depth of our | shame .'" 

800. Dactylic verse seems to have been the least cultivated of 
all kinds of English versification. This is the more surprising 
on account of the eminent beauty of which it is susceptible, as 
well as the facility for its adoption furnished in the immense 
number of dactyls with which the language abounds. 

PPwOSODY. 191 


801. English verses generally consist of feet all of one kind, or of one 
kind with an additional syllable. In this they differ materially from the 
verses of the ancients, in which feet of different kinds were found mixed 
together in the same line. For instance, the most common of all their 
verses, the Latin and Greek hexameter, corresponding in its uses to our 
heroic pentameter, consisted of dactyls and spondees combined to suit the 
varying character of the sense ; a preponderance of dactyls giving a rapid 
movement to the verse, suited to light, gay, or beautiful subjects; and a 
preponderance of spondees, on the contrary, making the movement of the 
verse slow and solemn. In English verse, this combination of^difFerent feet, 
in the same line, has been seldom attempted. In fact, no whole poem of 
any considerable size, so far as the author is aware, has been constructed 
of mixed lines throughout. Most of the examples that exist are isolated 
lines in poems that are otherwise purely Iambic, Trochaic, Anapaestic, or 
Dactylic. A Spondeo-Dactylic poem, for instance, does not exist in Eng- 
lish literature, although there m.ay be examples of Spondeo-Dactylic verses. 
A few specimens of mixed verses will nov/ be given. 

802. The following celebrated lines, from Childe Harold, con- 
tain an example of a Trochee {~ ^ ) and a Spondee ( ) both 
occurring in one line of an Iambic ( " "" ) poem : 

Far I along" 
From peak | to peak, | the ratjtling crags | among, 
Leaps the \ live thiin\d^er I not | from one | lone cloud, &c. 
The lines which follow^ contain a Trochee ( " "^ ) in a verse 
otherwise purely Iambic {^ ~ )'. 

Along I the r6[sy east, | in gold [en pride, 
Soars the \ arisjing sun.| 

803. In the second of the lines which follow, w^hich are in 
Iambic {^ ~~) metre, occur a Pyrrhic ( " "^ ) and a Spondee ( ). 

Yet l6ve|ly in | your strength, | as is | the light 
Of a I dark eye \ in w6m|an! Far | along 
From peak to peak, &c. 
The following is another example of the same: 
Tho.t on I weak wings \ from far | pursues | your flight. 

804. The following is an example of Hexameter verse, com- 
posed of dactyls (^~ ^ ^) and spondees ( ~ " ) alternately : 


Green in the | wild wood [ proudly the | tall tree ] looks on 
the I brown plain. 

The next example is a pure Dactylic Hexameter. 

Over the | valley, with | speed like the | wind, all the | steeds 
were a | galloping. 

This will remind the scholar of Virgil's oft-quoted Hexa- 
meter ; 

Quadrupe|dante pii|trem soni|tu quatit | ungiila | campum. 




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